Crise imagens_dabogah

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A crise brasileira: um resumo

A crise brasileira atual – já se diz em todo lugar – resulta de uma conjunção de fatores críticos éticos, políticos e econômicos. Assim, ela seria o resultado da combinação de uma crise ética (baseada na degeneração do papel dos atores políticos, sobretudo na corrupção sistêmica praticada numa escala jamais vista na nossa história), de uma crise política e de uma crise econômica.
 
No entanto, uma análise de inteligência democrática é capaz de mostrar que há uma crise mais profunda cuja natureza é social. Antes de ser política, ética ou econômica, a crise é social, ou seja, é uma desarrumação profunda nos fluxos interativos da convivência social, uma perturbação no campo que impede (ou dificulta) a abertura de novos caminhos. A crise só se faz sentir na nossa vida e na nossa convivência social porque ela é uma alteração do “estoque” de capital social. Quando esse “estoque” diminui há déficit de caminhos ou obstruções que impedem a abertura de novos caminhos. Para tudo: projetos, empreendimentos, negócios, relacionamentos… Porque, no fundo, capital social nada mais é do que confiança ampliada socialmente.
 
As causas da crise, entretanto, têm a ver diretamente com a política, na medida em que, no caso do Brasil atual (mas também de outros países, como a Venezuela), há um tronco gerador de bloqueio de fluxos inegavelmente associado a um governo central que foi capturado por uma força agressiva e muito perigosa, que destrói continuamente capital social ao tentar instalar uma dinâmica de guerra com o fito de continuar agarrada ao poder.
 
Como sabemos há muito tempo, os grandes exterminadores de capital social são a centralização, o clientelismo ou o paternalismo e o clima adversarial. Todas estas são características do que chamamos de populismo. Ora, a força de que falamos é, basicamente, populista. Portanto, enquanto essa força continuar no poder, haverá dilapidação do nosso capital social e a crise social que está na raiz das crises política, ética e econômica que percebemos, só se agravará. Desse ponto de vista, a crise brasileira, portanto, é uma crise do populismo ou do neopopulismo. O neopopulismo não se caracteriza apenas, como os velhos populismos, pela irresponsabilidade econômica (fiscal), pelo fato do governante gastar mais do que arrecada para manter um curral cativo de eleitores. No caso do Brasil, ele se caracteriza por termos um regime democrático formal parasitado por uma força autoritária e manipuladora que usa a democracia – notadamente as eleições – contra a democracia com o fito de se delongar no poder por tempo indeterminado ou pelo tempo necessário para conquistar hegemonia sobre a sociedade a partir do Estado aparelhado pelo partido. Este “modelo” (na verdade, mais propriamente, um comportamento político do que um modelo) entrou em crise sobretudo em razão do aumento da conectividade, da distribuição e da interatividade na transição, ora em curso, de uma sociedade hierárquica para uma sociedade em rede. Não há mais lugar para o populismo (e também para a variante neopopulista) nos mundos altamente conectados do terceiro milênio (na medida, é claro, da interatividade desses mundos: em Cuba ou na Venezuela há ainda mais lugar do que no Brasil ou no Chile).
 
Pois bem. As soluções para a crise social mais profunda – com todas as suas consequências éticas, político-institucionais e econômicas – não virão de novos arranjos políticos de ocasião, mas passam necessariamente pela remoção do atual governo, o que coloca a política como fulcro das soluções.
 
Em certo sentido, o PT é a crise. Assim, há uma solução política que antecede todas as demais e sem a qual não se conseguirá reunir as condições favoráveis à reconstituição do tecido social que foi esgarçado e dilacerado pelo neopopulismo representado pelo lulopetismo. Sem a remoção do PT do comando do governo, ademais, não se conseguirá desencadear um processo de reforma dos nossos costumes políticos, tornando menos aceitável socialmente a corrupção, interrompendo a degeneração das instituições e recuperando a sua credibilidade e reconstituir um ambiente econômico favorável ao desenvolvimento, aos negócios e à inovação.
 
Há um processo de autocratização em marcha no país, posto que o lulopetismo é autocratizante do ponto de vista estritamente político, quer dizer, da sua incidência no enfreamento da democracia que temos.
 
Mas a democracia não tem a ver apenas com o sistema representativo, quer dizer, com o modo político de administração do Estado e com o funcionamento dos poderes constituídos, que vige em parte dos países que adotaram a democracia dos modernos. Alterações no processo de democratização afetam a vida cotidiana de cada um de nós, interferem na estrutura e na dinâmica de nossas empresas e organizações e perturbam a convivência social como um todo, causando deformações nos fluxos interativos. Pode-se dizer que quando a democracia está ameaçada todas as nossas atividades livres, sejam políticas, sociais ou mercantis, são perturbadas.
 
Dentre as alternativas de remoção do PT do governo, as saídas constitucionais são as mais adequadas – na verdade são as únicas aceitáveis – do ponto de vista democrático: as próximas eleições, o impeachment por crime de responsabilidade e a cassação do mandato por crime eleitoral. No entanto, a rápida deterioração institucional e econômica do país inviabilizam a saída eleitoral: não é possível esperar quase 3 anos para remover o PT do governo.
 
As duas alternativas restantes, condizentes com o Estado democrático de direito – o impeachment e o julgamento do tribunal eleitoral sobre os crimes cometidos na campanha de 2014 –, são as únicas válidas. E qualquer tentativa de antecipação das eleições que não seja um truque para inviabilizar essas soluções constitucionais, só poderão ser cogitadas após a consecução de pelo menos uma delas.
 
Ocorre que as duas saídas constitucionais apontadas acima só serão correta e efetivamente aplicadas pelas nossas instituições (o Congresso, o TSE e o STF) – dado o seu grau de degeneração e aparelhamento pelo partido do governo – com a pressão da cidadania, por meio de ações de oposição popular (como as manifestações de rua e outras) e do exercício cotidiano da resistência democrática, inclusive com a prática da desobediência civil e política.
 

 

 

 

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