Lei dos partidos

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A lei dos partidos é inepta para proteger a democracia

A lei atualmente em vigor, que regula a atuação dos partidos políticos, prevê a extinção do registro partidário. Mas a lei que prevê isso é inepta para enfrentar a ameaça de partidos à democracia.

A chamada Lei dos Partidos Políticos (Lei 9.096 de 19 de setembro de 1995) aboliu as exigências do artigo 141 da Constituição de 1946, que dispunha que “é vedada a organização, o registro ou o funcionamento de qualquer partido político cujo programa ou ação contrarie o regime democrático…”. Ou seja, segundo a lei em vigor pode-se criar, por exemplo, um partido nazista ou qualquer outro partido com ideais antidemocráticos.

Restou na Lei 9.096 (de acordo com a atual Constituição Federal), como hipóteses de cancelamento de registro de partidos políticos, apenas o seguinte:

“Art. 27. Fica cancelado, junto ao Ofício Civil e ao Tribunal Superior Eleitoral, o registro do partido que, na forma de seu estatuto, se dissolva, se incorpore ou venha a se fundir a outro.

Art. 28. O Tribunal Superior Eleitoral, após trânsito em julgado de decisão, determina o cancelamento do registro civil e do estatuto do partido contra o qual fique provado:
I – ter recebido ou estar recebendo recursos financeiros de procedência estrangeira;
II – estar subordinado a entidade ou governo estrangeiros;
III – não ter prestado, nos termos desta Lei, as devidas contas à Justiça Eleitoral;
IV – que mantém organização paramilitar”.

“Observe-se – escreveu Vinicius de Oliveira (analista do judiciário do TRE-MG) – que nem o legislador constitucional, nem o ordinário cuidou da hipótese de proscrever os partidos que preguem em seus estatutos, ações ou programas que neguem a própria democracia, o pluripartidarismo, ou que propugnem a ditadura. Em suma, um partido com ideais anti-democráticos é legítimo e pode ser registrado, o que não ocorria sob a ordem constitucional de 1946… Também não é hipótese de cassação do registro de partido político o financiamento partidário irregular através de “caixa dois”, recebimento de recursos de origem vedada, etc.”

Assim, nosso arcabouço legal para tratar de ameaças ao regime democrático como a representada por partidos antidemocráticos é claramente insuficiente. Ainda porque um partido assim não precisa declarar nada do que pretende fazer para autocratizar a democracia brasileira. Pode simplesmente fazer tudo que pretende fazer declarando, inclusive, o oposto: dizendo que está lutando por uma verdadeira democracia et coetera.

Na verdade, todo nosso arcabouço legal é inepto para punir organizações criminosas. Punem-se as pessoas que se associaram para delinquir, mas não os entes sociais (ou antissociais) que conformaram; não, pelo menos, quando tais organizações constituem tipos autorizados por lei a funcionar. Assim, por exemplo, como a Odebrecht é uma empresa e a lei autoriza empresas a funcionar, então se ela vira uma organização criminosa, punem-se as pessoas que cometeram crimes, mas preserva-se a organização formal, sem ver que a organização real virou uma organização criminosa. Mas qual a organização criminosa de facto que se declarará formalmente ou de direito organização criminosa?

O assunto é polêmico e não é o caso de entrar aqui em uma controvérsia jurídica. Mas um partido que se constituiu para alterar a natureza do regime democrático escapará – de acordo com a lei – de qualquer punição, desde que seja dirigido e/ou composto por pessoas que não cometeram crimes. Pode haver organizações criminosas compostas por uma maioria de pessoas não criminosas? É claro que pode, desde que a direção real dessas organizações não coincida com a sua direção formal. Pessoas que não cometeram crimes, individualmente, podem dirigir organizações que tenham como objetivo cometer crimes; sendo a organização um partido, crimes políticos, crimes contra a democracia. É o caso do PT, cuja direção formal não coincide com a sua direção real: sejam quais forem os basbaques que ocupem os cargos no diretório nacional do partido, quem manda mesmo é Lula, Dirceu e seus sequazes (alguns dos quais nem membros são das instâncias partidárias).

Parece claro que pessoas que não cometeram crimes não podem ser punidas pelos crimes praticados pela organização. A faxineira do restaurante que serve de bunker para a máfia não pode ser responsabilizada pelas ações ilegais dos mafiosos que atuam criminosamente no estabelecimento. Mas também parece claro que a organização, neste caso, não poderia mais continuar existindo.

 

 

 

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