Critérios democráticos

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Democracia não é eleição

Reproduzo abaixo – para depois fazer um breve comentário – o excelente artigo publicado hoje no Estadão por Francisco Ferraz, professor de Ciência Política, ex-reitor da UFRGS, pós-graduado pela Universidade de Princeton e criador e diretor do site Política para Políticos.

A pirâmide da democracia

A avaliação global da pirâmide democrática brasileira é muito insatisfatória

Francisco Ferraz, O Estado de São Paulo, 08 Maio 2017 | 05h00

Para os cultores do enfoque jurídico-formal, basta haver eleições e uma Constituição com os princípios formais do Estado de Direito para o sistema político ser considerado uma democracia. Preferimos sempre o abstrato ao concreto, a elaboração da nova lei ao costume e à tradição, o ideal ao real. Preferimos medir o progresso pelo número de faculdades, e não pelo que nelas é ensinado; diplomas à comprovação do conhecimento; igualdade abstrata ao mérito comprovado.

A escolha direta do governante por todo o corpo eleitoral parece a muitos suficiente para identificar uma democracia. O movimento popular das Diretas-Já foi uma mobilização por eleições presidenciais diretas e, secundariamente, pela democracia. O fato é que continuamos uma democracia instável, sujeita a uma crônica instabilidade política, como a maioria dos países do Hemisfério Sul. Mas o que se busca é uma democracia estável, que se caracteriza por variáveis de natureza sociológica, histórica, política e cultural, virtuosamente harmonizadas em seu funcionamento (ver Brasil: a cultura política de uma democracia mal resolvida).

Mais difícil de ser realizada que o desenvolvimento econômico, uma democracia estável se constrói em “camadas”, sendo as eleições a primeira delas. Embora indispensáveis numa democracia, a existência de eleições isoladamente não é suficiente para constituir uma democracia estável. A pirâmide da democracia pode ser descrita como sendo composta de 6 camadas.

Eleições formam a 1.ª camada de uma democracia e correspondem ao procedimento legítimo para a escolha de autoridades políticas. A 2.ª camada é ainda a eleição, mas qualificada como imparcial, isenta e honesta. Passar de eleições manipuladas para eleições isentas não é uma questão de técnica. Significa um grande avanço institucional no rumo de uma democracia estável.

A 3.ª camada corresponde à segurança efetiva dos direitos e garantias individuais. Sem esses direitos assegurados efetivamente o cidadão não se pode manifestar livremente no processo eleitoral. Participação política sem liberdade individual é uma farsa.

A 4.ª camada não é especificamente política, mas a consequência de sua existência ou inexistência é decisiva para a continuidade do sistema político: eficiência governamental. Governos em crise provocam frustração e revolta contra as instituições, estimulam o surgimento de surtos de ação direta e empurram a democracia para o agravamento de sua instabilidade.

A 5.ª camada estabelece relações de igualdade e mútuo controle entre os Poderes. É do poder de contenção de cada Poder em relação aos demais que a liberdade individual é protegida dos abusos, cuja eficiência na garantia da liberdade grande parte dos eleitores desconhece.

A 6.ª camada na cúpula da pirâmide é a existência de sólido consenso sobre os valores, regras e procedimentos essenciais da democracia. Questões básicas para o funcionamento ordeiro da sociedade, que atingiram alto grau de aceitação, valorização e internalização pelos cidadãos, deixam de ser temas de conflito político e divisões partidárias. Liberdade política, propriedade, justiça social, pluralismo cultural, liberdade religiosa e devido processo legal são a base consensual de uma democracia estável.

A imagem da pirâmide ajuda também a entender que 1) cada nova camada é mais difícil de ser construída que a anterior; 2) a nova camada depende, para preencher seu espaço na pirâmide, da solução virtuosa da anterior; 3) só democracias estáveis conseguem completar a pirâmide; e 4) democracias instáveis assumem a forma de pirâmides interrompidas.

Na realidade, além de sua formalização, uma democracia estável depende de uma ação efetiva e resolutiva que transforme normas em comportamentos. São necessárias, então, qualidades como determinação, disposição, persistência e lucidez de sua elite política para edificar a pirâmide. A determinação de cada Poder para manter sua independência diante dos demais Poderes; dos Estados-membros de manterem sua autonomia política e administrativa ante o governo federal e este de respeitá-las; da sociedade, ao institucionalizar um consenso sobre valores, regras e princípios políticos básicos da democracia e garantir aos cidadãos o pleno gozo de seus direitos e garantias individuais.

Todas essas exigências são mais complexas e difíceis de realizar que eleições, reformas políticas, Constituintes. Democracias instáveis têm, pois, muita dificuldade de avançar consistentemente para níveis mais complexos e exigentes de institucionalização, além de realizar eleições.

A pirâmide da democracia brasileira, a julgar pela última eleição presidencial, evidencia que do ponto de vista técnico talvez realizemos eleições satisfatoriamente (1.ª camada); eleições, contudo, que foram contestadas quanto à sua imparcialidade como nunca antes (2.ª camada); com direitos e garantias individuais satisfatoriamente respeitados (3.ª camada); mas com muito baixos níveis de eficiência governamental (4.ª camada); com formal independência dos Poderes, mas baixas condições de mútuo controle (5.ª camada); e com um frágil consenso em torno de valores básicos da democracia, com opções dicotomizadas e processo de radicalização (6.ª camada).

A avaliação global da pirâmide democrática do Brasil é, pois, muito insatisfatória. Recuamos em 4 das 6 camadas (2.ª, 4.ª, 5.ª e 6.ª) e agravamos muito o quadro do nosso consenso básico, pela radicalização do conflito político. Nosso desafio continua sendo edificar a pirâmide camada a camada.

Confirma-se, assim, a nossa condição de democracia instável e a conjuntura de debilitação da democracia. Grande parte das nações com democracias instáveis permanece na base da pirâmide, ainda na fase de luta para conseguir realizar eleições limpas, autênticas e imparciais.

Democracias estáveis construíram a pirâmide de baixo até o topo, e mantêm incólumes todas as seis camadas com a passagem do tempo.

Um breve comentário

O artigo é muito bom. A imagem da pirâmide, porém, é ruim. Como há um condicionamento recíproco entre padrão de organização e modo de regulação, a topologia da pirâmide é tudo que não se deve ter presente em processos democráticos. Não que o padrão de organização, por si só, sem ação política, seja capaz de gerar um determinado modo de regulação, mas topologias mais centralizadas do que distribuídas (como a pirâmide) se sintonizam com dinâmicas mais autocráticas do que democráticas. O exemplo clássico, entre nós, foi a chamada Democracia Corinthiana, aquele movimento surgido na década de 1980 no Corinthians, liderado por Sócrates, Wladimir, Casagrande e Zenon. A Democracia Corinthiana pode ser instalada, pela ação política de seus agentes, mas não pode perdurar na medida em que o time (Corinthians) tinha uma topologia mais centralizada do que distribuída (era uma… pirâmide). Deixando isso de lado, porém, posto que o autor usou a imagem da pirâmide apenas como recurso explicativo (como quem usa, por exemplo, a Pirâmide de Maslow, para falar de uma suposta hierarquia de necessidades – e o uso da palavra hierarquia aqui é deslizado), sem pretensões analíticas, passemos ao que interessa.

Penso que a questão já havia sido adequadamente equacionada por Sir Ralf Dahrendorf. A legitimidade democrática depende da combinação de seis critérios: liberdade, eletividade, publicidade ou transparência (e accountability), rotatividade ou alternância, legalidade e institucionalidade. Não são propriamente camadas (depositadas umas sobre as outras). Mesmo porque não há um processo temporal que separe uma camada da outra, como sugere a metáfora construtivista da pirâmide. São variáveis que se combinam e que podem estar todas (ou algumas, pelo menos) presentes no início e, depois, de repente, ficarem, em parte, ausentes (como o próprio autor constata no caso brasileiro). Ou seja, o que há é um processo de democratização, sempre sujeito a idas e vindas, avanços e retrocessos, e não um modelo que se aplica ou que se constrói, como um jogo de montar. Não há propriamente a ereção de alguma coisa e sim uma constelação particularíssima de vários fatores, como mostra esquematicamente a imagem que ilustra este post.

Brevemente vamos tecer uma consideração mais extensa sobre o tema.

 

 

 

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