isla-dagobah

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Islamismo e ditadura

Um registro para ulterior desenvolvimento. Eis o levantamento do Pew Research Center, de dezembro de 2012 (com dados de 2010). Se tomarmos os países com maioria muçulmana, veremos que a maior parte (poucas são as exceções) é composta por autocraciass. O mesmo ocorre em países em que seguidores do Islã são maioria (em amarelo na tabela) em relação a fiéis de outras religiões ou aos que não têm religiões (como Guiné-Bissau) ou quase maioria (se já não o são, em dados atualizados, como a Nigéria). Mais ainda: os países onde os muçulmanos são superiores a 20%  (em rosa na tabela), também apresentam problemas no tocante aos seus processos de democratização (com exceção de Chipre). Nenhum desses países – por qualquer classificação que se quiser adotar – são democracias plenas e, nem mesmo, países com graus aceitáveis de democratização. Parece evidente que tudo isso não pode ser por acaso.
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Religious Composition by Country, in Percentages

View as: Numbers | Percentages

*Folk religions include followers of African traditional religions, Chinese folk religions, Native American religions and Australian aboriginal religions.

**The “other religions” category includes Bahai’s, Jains, Sikhs, Shintoists, Taoists, followers of Tenrikyo, Wiccans, Zoroastrians and many other faiths. Population estimates of 9,999 persons or less are identified as “<10,000.” All other counts are rounded to the nearest 10,000. Percentages are calculated from unrounded numbers. Figures may not add exactly due to rounding. Estimated 2010 total population figures are based primarily on the 2010 revision of the United Nations World Population Prospects data. The United Nations provided the Pew Forum with special estimates for Sudan and the new nation of South Sudan. The population estimate for Kosovo is based on the figure from the World Religion Database, which is deducted from the U.N.’s Serbia estimate.

Compare-se agora os destaques na tabela acima (Pew Research Center) com os países da lista das ditaduras que remanescem no mundo em 2016:

01. Afeganistão
02. Angola
03. Arábia Saudita
04. Argélia
05. Azerbaidjão
06. Barein
07. Belarus
08. Brunei
09. Burkina Faso
10. Burma (Mianmar)
11. Camarões
12. Camboja
13. Cazaquistão
14. Chade
15. China
16. Comoros
17. Congo (Kinshasa | Brazzaville)
18. Coréia do Norte
19. Costa do Marfim
20. Cuba
21. Djibuti
22. Egito
23. Emirados Árabes Unidos
24. Eritreia
25. Etiópia
26. Fiji
27. Gabão
28. Gâmbia
29. Guine
30. Guiné Equatorial
31. Guiné-Bissau
32. Irã
33. Jordan
34. Kuwait
35. Laos
36. Líbia
37. Madagascar
38. Marrocos
39. Nigéria
40. Omã
41. Palestina (Faixa de Gaza sob controle do Hamas)
42. Qatar
43. República Centro Africana
44. República Democrática do Congo
45. Ruanda
46. Rússia
47. Síria
48. Somália
49. Suazilândia
50. Sudão
51. Sudão do Sul
52. Tajiquistão
53. Togo
54. Turcomenistão
55. Turquia
56. Uzbequistão
57. Venezuela
58. Vietnam
59. Yemen
60. Zimbábue

DEMOCRACIA E CULTURA RELIGIOSA

Interessante seria investigar os países onde a estimativa (o Pew Research Center só tem dados de 2010, ao que parece) percent that is unaffiliated (a qualquer religião, incluindo – além de cristianismo, islamismo, hinduísmo, budismo e judaísmo – folk religions: seguidores de african traditional religions, chinese folk religions, native american religions and australian aboriginal religions e, inclusive, outras religiões menores, tipo: Bahai’s, Jains, Sikhs, Shintoists, Taoists, seguidores de Tenrikyo, Wiccans, Zoroastrians e muitas outras fés) ultrapassa 20%. Aí temos dois grupos:

a) países onde a religião ainda é proibida ou coibida severamente (ou foi proibida ou coibida recentemente, ou seja, no século 20); e

b) os demais países. Na lista ‘b’ (dos demais países), temos mais democracias plenas (e aceitáveis) e nenhuma ditadura (se considerarmos que Hong Kong, embora hoje subordinado à China, era protetorado britânico).

Em ordem alfabética (o primeiro número indica o lugar na lista):

10 – Alemanha 24,7%
11 – Austrália 24,2%
06 – Bélgica 29,0%
12 – Canadá 23,7%
07 – França 28,0%
03 – Holanda 42,1%
02 – Hong Kong 56,1%
01 – Japão 57,0%
09 – Luxemburgo 26,8%
05 – Nova Zelândia 36,6%
13 – Reino Unido 21,3%
08 – Suécia 27,0%
04 – Uruguai 40,7%

 

 

 

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