1 Lista fechada

,

Mais um golpe contra a democracia

Entenda por que a lista fechada é antidemocrática

Lista fechada é assim. Todo partido tem chefes. Os chefes dos partidos determinam os lugares dos candidatos na lista, por ordem de submissão aos seus desígnios. Veja as consequências:

1 – Quem diverge dos chefes, ocupa os piores lugares da lista e nunca é eleito.

2 – Os partidos, na prática, são substituídos pelos chefes.

3 – Os chefes de todos os partidos se reúnem em um condomínio e determinam o que deve e o que não deve ser aprovado no parlamento. O parlamento vira mera casa homologatória. A isso se chama partidocracia.

4 – O representante eleito que votar contra o que quer o chefe do seu partido é excluído: é expulso ou vai para o último lugar da lista na próxima eleição. Isso hierarquiza ainda mais os partidos, que já não são democráticos internamente.

5 – O eleitor, por sua vez, não pode mais votar no seu candidato: todo voto passa a ser um voto na legenda, quer dizer, no partido. Como todo partido tem dono, os eleitores vão votar sempre nos donos dos partidos (pois são eles que vão determinar quem vai ser eleito e quem não vai).

6 – Ninguém saberá mais em quem votou. Tudo isso afasta ainda mais o representante do representado e acaba impondo uma dinâmica autocratizante no parlamento e derruindo a democracia.

7 – A lista fechada, juntamente com a fidelidade partidária e o financiamento exclusivamente estatal de campanha, leva diretamente à partidocracia. Instituir a partidocracia equivale a dar um golpe na democracia.

Merval Pereira, em seu artigo de ontem em O Globo, acerta em cheio. Leiam abaixo:

A LISTA ESCONDE

por Merval Pereira, O Globo, 15/03/2017 08:00

Proibida a doação eleitoral por empresas pelo Supremo Tribunal Federal, e inviabilizada pelos escândalos que estão sendo revelados desde o mensalão e que agora, no petrolão, ganharam detalhes perversos de utilização dos mecanismos institucionais da democracia para lavar o dinheiro das propinas oriundas de verba pública, a política ficou sem meios de se financiar. E fazer campanha eleitoral custa caro em qualquer lugar do mundo.

Somente os candidatos a deputado federal nas últimas eleições declararam doações no valor total do Fundo Partidário para todos os partidos, o que significa que faltaria dinheiro para financiar os demais candidatos a todos os cargos eletivos, inclusive presidente da República.

É essa constatação que está levando à conclusão de que somente uma escolha com lista fechada de candidatos, financiada por verba pública, pode viabilizar a eleição de 2018 que, sem isso, ficaria à mercê do dinheiro ilegal, venha de onde vier.

O sistema de lista fechada, no qual os candidatos são elencados pelos partidos, mas os eleitores votam apenas na legenda partidária, era o sonho do PT na época do pós-mensalão, e, com maior razão ainda, nos dias de hoje. Um detalhe sintomático aparece nas propostas em estudo: a garantia das “candidaturas natas” aos atuais detentores de mandato legislativo em todos os níveis, privilégio que foi suspenso pelo Supremo Tribunal Federal em 2002 para garantir a isonomia aos candidatos.

Hoje, quando a maioria dos atuais parlamentares está envolvida por delações de corrupção de empreiteiras, ter a garantia de concorrer a uma vaga acobertado pela sigla partidária vale ouro para os parlamentares, com trocadilho.

Essa proposta de lista fechada, no entanto, já foi derrotada dentro do próprio Congresso, quando ela parecia mais favorável ao PT do que aos demais partidos. O ambiente político mudou, e a solidariedade entre os acusados, sem diferenciação partidária, faz com que a proposta tenha boa chance de ser aprovada.

Ela traz em si uma contradição fundamental, a de fortalecer as direções partidárias no mesmo momento em que os partidos políticos brasileiros estão desmoralizados às vistas da Nação. Na primeira tentativa, foi relevante para que não fosse aprovada ressaltar que os eleitores não escolheriam seus candidatos diretamente, mas votando em uma lista previamente preparada pelos partidos.

Hoje, essa especificidade é justamente o que faz a proposta ser palatável a uma maioria parlamentar que quer se esconder do eleitor. A reação à proposta pode vir apenas das manifestações populares, mas na situação atual os senhores parlamentares já não se assustam com a voz rouca das ruas, mas com a possibilidade de cair na lista do Janot.

Não que, em isso acontecendo, temam ser condenados pela Justiça e impedidos de disputar as eleições, sabem que não haverá tempo para tal. Mas temem ser rejeitados pelos eleitores caso tenham que fazer campanhas individuais. No bolo partidário, têm mais chance de passar no teste eleitoral.

O assunto ganhou importância no momento. E a tal ponto que a manifestação marcada para 26/03/2017 não poderá dele se esquivar. Evitar mais esse golpe, hoje, é um imperativo democrático que deve ser assumido pela cidadania.

 

 

 

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