Sócrates

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O movimento sofista 5 (12 e 13) Sócrates e o Corpus Hipocrático

Começamos a publicar os capítulos do livro de G. B. Kerferd (1980), O movimento sofista (tradução de Margarida Oliva de The Sophistic Movement, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981, publicada pelas Edições Loyola, São Paulo, 2003).

Os três primeiros capítulos estão disponíveis aqui. O quarto capítulo está disponível aqui. A primeira parte do quinto capítulo (relativa a Protágoras) está disponível aqui. O segundo, terceiro e quarto tópicos do quinto capítulo (relativos a Górgias, Pródicos e Hípias) estão disponíveis aqui. O quinto, sexto e sétimo tópicos do quinto capítulo (relativos a Antífon, Trasímaco e Cálicles) estão disponíveis aqui. O oitavo, nono, décimo e décimo-primeiro tópicos do quinto capítulo (relativos a Crítias, Eutidemo e Dionisodoro, o Dissoi Logoi e o Anônimo Jâmblico) estão disponíveis aqui. Segue abaixo o décimo-segundo e o décimo-terceiro tópicos do quinto capítulo (relativos a Sócrates como membro do movimento sofista e ao Corpus Hipocrático).

5 – Os sofistas individualmente

(Conclusão)

(12) Sócrates como membro do movimento sofista

A ideia mesma de incluir Sócrates como parte do movimento sofista é, no máximo, um paradoxo e, para muitos, um absurdo. Platão procura apresentar Sócrates como o arqui-inimigo dos sofistas e de tudo o que eles representavam. Pareceria que o fosso entre Sócrates e os sofistas tem se tornado, através dos séculos, ainda mais largo e intransponível, na medida em que Sócrates se tornou um símbolo e um chamado de arregimentação. Ele tem sido muitas vezes considerado como sobrepujado em grandeza moral somente pelo fundador do cristianismo e como encarnando, em sua própria vida e personalidade, tudo o que há de mais nobre e mais valioso nas tradições intelectuais da civilização ocidental.

Entretanto, Sócrates era um ser humano vivendo num determinado período de tempo. Ele só pode ser compreendido se visto no contexto de seu próprio mundo contemporâneo. É assim que Platão o retrata, vivendo naquele mundo, e participando vivamente nas controvérsias do século V, com adversários tais como Protágoras, Górgias, Pródicos e Hípias. Além disso, podemos dizer com alguma certeza que Platão não se convencia de que os argumentos desses adversários tivessem sido adequadamente refutados e sentia que era tarefa sua desenvolver uma visão mais completa da realidade a fim de chegar ao tipo de respostas exigidas.

Mas isso, ou alguma outra coisa, nos dá motivo para pensar que Sócrates fosse um sofista? Quero sugerir que, pelo menos em parte, nossa resposta a essa pergunta deveria ser sim. Em primeiro lugar não há dúvida nenhuma de que ele era considerado como tal pelos seus contemporâneos, inclusive por Aristófanes quando se divertiu às suas custas, em As nuvens, em 423 a. C. Mas há um problema ao citarmos Aristófanes, porque em As nuvens Sócrates é retratado como diretor de uma escola onde os alunos são internos, e Sócrates é pago para ensinar. Há outras diferenças fundamentais, além desses dois pontos, entre o retrato de Aristófanes e o modo como Sócrates é descrito por Platão e Xenofonte. Em Aristófanes, por exemplo, Sócrates é descrito como engajado em especulações físicas, e no Apologia de Platão ele nega esse interesse. Não é plausível dizer simplesmente que Aristófanes estava certo e Platão e Xenofonte estavam errados, e não é muito mais plausível dizer que ambos os relatos estão certos, mas são verdadeiros somente em relação a diferentes estágios da vida de Sócrates. Devemos concluir que, pelo menos até certo ponto, Aristófanes está distorcendo o retrato, ao atribuir a Sócrates características que pertencem aos sofistas em geral, mas que não pertenciam a Sócrates [14]. Até certo ponto, sim, mas até que ponto?

A seção “autobiográfica” do Fédon (96a6-99d2) é prova clara de um interesse antigo de Sócrates por ciência, e consta que ele, ao enfrentar a morte, passou a sua última hora discutindo a estrutura geológica da terra (Fédon 108d2-113c8). Já no século V ele foi associado ao filósofo físico Arquelau, por Íon de Quios (DK 60A3), que disse que Sócrates viajara com ele para Samos. A acusação formal de impiedade feita com sucesso contra Sócrates, em 399 a. C., alegava que ele era culpado de não aceitar os deuses que a cidade aceitava, de introduzir outras divindades estrangeiras e de corromper os jovens. Platão, no Apologia (19b2-cl, 23d5-7), afirma que por trás das acusações formais estavam preconceitos populares, segundo os quais Sócrates estava ocupado com especulações físicas, não acreditava nos deuses, tornava melhor o pior argumento e ensinava essas coisas aos outros. Embora essas acusações sejam negadas por Sócrates em sua defesa, é lá também abertamente admitido que jovens das classes mais ricas iam a ele espontaneamente, sem qualquer pagamento, e depois passavam a aplicar o que aprendiam com ele em debates com outros.

Fica assim claro que Sócrates era geralmente considerado parte do movimento sofista. Mediante a sua notória amizade com Aspásia, é provável que estivesse em contato bem íntimo com o círculo de Péricles, e seu impacto intelectual e educacional sobre os jovens ambiciosos em Atenas era tal que foi, nessa função, corretamente considerado sofista. O fato de não receber pagamento não altera em nada a sua função.

Mas não havia diferenças entre ele e o resto dos sofistas? A resposta exige que se tente descobrir qual era o método e qual era o conteúdo do ensino de Sócrates, e isso é difícil, especialmente no caso do conteúdo. Algumas sugestões serão feitas abaixo sobre como esse conteúdo estava relacionado a problemas levantados por outros sofistas, tomando como ponto de partida a afirmação de Aristóteles (Met. 1078b27-31) de que há duas coisas que temos razão em atribuir a Sócrates, epactic logoi, que provavelmente se refere ao processo de generalização a partir de exemplos que têm o poder de nos levar além de nós mesmos, e definições gerais. Isso se ajusta bem ao retrato regularmente encontrado nos diálogos de Platão, nos quais Sócrates é mostrado tentando descobrir O que é x, isto é, qual é o logos correto de x, onde x é alguma coisa que aparece no mundo à nossa volta, acima de tudo uma virtude ou uma qualidade moral ou estética. Diferentemente dos platônicos, diz Aristóteles, Sócrates não separava os universais ou as definições das coisas às quais se aplicavam. Mas isso também se ajusta muito bem ao retrato de outros, entre os sofistas, que também se ocupavam com a busca do logos mais forte ou o logos correto em relação às afirmações conflitantes de logoi aparentemente opostos. É deste ponto de vista que proponho que Sócrates deva ser tratado como tendo um papel a desempenhar dentro do movimento sofista.

(13) O Corpus Hipocrático

Uma exposição completa do movimento sofista no século V a. C. exigiria que se considerassem os elementos sofistas na coleção de escritos médicos atribuídos a Hipócrates. Essa é uma vasta área de estudo na qual ainda resta muito a ser feito, e somente muito pouco será dito aqui [15]. Muitos dos tratados no Corpus mostram poucos sinais, ou nenhum sinal, de influências sofistas específicas. Esse, porém, certamente não é o caso de dois tratados, Sobre as artes e Sobre a respiração, que não parecem ter sido escritos por médicos. Têm mais o caráter de epideixeis ou demonstrações de argumentação sofista. Assim, Sobre as artes, no processo de defender a arte da medicina contra os que a atacam, começa com uma referência aos que fizeram uma arte de difamar as artes a fim de dar uma demonstração (epideixis) da sua própria erudição. Lembrando, assim, aos leitores de Protágoras, o ataque de Protágoras à prática de Hípias, passa a defender a arte da medicina como possuindo uma existência independente, recorrendo às doutrinas sofistas a respeito da relação entre nomes e classes de coisas. Tentativas anteriores de atribuir a autoria a Protágoras ou a Hípias não são convincentes, mas é difícil negar-lhe lugar dentro do movimento sofista.

A obra Sobre a respiração argumenta que o ar, tão importante na natureza em geral, é também, na forma de respiração, o agente mais ativo em todas as doenças, enquanto todas as outras coisas são causas secundárias e subordinadas. Diferente é a posição do tratado Sobre a medicina antiga, que sustenta que as artes são invenções humanas desenvolvidas no decorrer de um longo período de tempo. E prossegue (no capítulo 20) atacando certos médicos e sofistas que afirmam que, a fim de entender de medicina, é necessário saber o que é o homem. Em resposta, argumenta-se que questões tais como a natureza do homem pertencem às especulações da filosofia física, não fazem parte da medicina e não a auxiliam em nada. O que é necessário é o estudo detalhado das doenças individuais e dos históricos de caso individuais.

Notas e referências

[14] Ver Aristophanes Clouds, ed. K. J. DOVER, Oxford, 1968, introdução xxxii-lvii, reimpresso com pequenas alterações em G. VLASTOS, The Philosophy of Socrates, Nova Iorque, 1971, 50-77.

[15] Para uma avaliação recente, ver os comentários de G. E. R. LLOYD, Magic, Reason and Experience, Cambridge 1979, 86-98.

 

 

 

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