Por que os democratas não se declaram anti-comunistas

Democratas, por definição, são anti-ditaduras. Porque a democracia, no sentido forte do conceito, é um processo de desconstituição de autocracia.

Mas democratas não podem se declarar anti-comunistas se isso não for acompanhado da declaração de que são anti-ditaduras, todas as ditaduras, digam-se de esquerda ou de direita.

Salazar era anti-comunista e ditador. Franco era anti-comunista e ditador. Pinochet era anti-comunista e ditador. Videla era anti-comunista e ditador. Médici era anti-comunista e ditador. Bordaberry era anti-comunista e ditador. Então, não basta aos democratas se dizerem anti-comunistas se não deixarem claro que são contra ditaduras, inclusive contra aquelas que combatem o comunismo.

O termo anti-comunismo foi cunhado por pessoas que não estavam convertidas à democracia. É uma remanescência da guerra fria e não da política democrática. Pode-se ser contra o comunismo sem ser anticomunista.

Os democratas são contra o comunismo porque os movimentos políticos que quiseram implantar o comunismo não eram democráticos e acabaram implantando ditaduras. Isso tem a ver com o modo de regulação de conflitos – se democrático ou autocrático – e não com o conteúdo específico de uma narrativa ideológica: ser contra ou a favor de mais ou menos Estado, ser contra ou a favor do livre-mercado, ser contra ou a favor da propriedade privada, ser contra ou a favor do capitalismo, ser contra ou a favor da religião cristã.

É isso que os que se dizem anti-comunistas não entendem. Porque eles não entendem a democracia. Eles acham que a democracia é assim como um tipo de construção ideológica, que depende de um corpo de crenças teoricamente articulado e do qual se possa inferir consequências. Eles têm uma apreensão cognitivista – e não interativista – da democracia.

Por exemplo, alguns deles, que se dizem liberais (no sentido econômico do termo), acham que é necessário, para não ser comunista, ser a favor de menos Estado. Sim, o comunismo – ou o caminho para o comunismo que passa pelo socialismo – é um estatismo. Mas isso não significa necessariamente que todos os que são a favor de menos Estado são a favor da regulação mercantil para a sociedade, o que é um deslizamento epistemológico rigorosamente indevido já que os modos de agenciamento que chamamos de ‘mercado’ e ‘sociedade’ têm racionalidades distintas. Pode-se ser a favor de menos Estado, defendendo mais regulação societária.

Outro exemplo. Alguns (em geral os mesmos liberais-econômicos) acham que é necessário, para não ser comunista, ser a favor de livre-mercado. Correto. Mas ser a favor de livre-mercado não implica automaticamente ser a favor do capitalismo realmente existente, já que esse capitalismo (não o dos livros dos economistas capitalistas) não se dá tão bem assim como o livre-mercado. Ou seja, alguém pode ser contra o comunismo sem ser a favor do capitalismo (realmente existente).

Mais um exemplo. Alguns (liberais-conservadores) acham que é necessário, para não ser comunista, ser a favor da propriedade privada. Mas quando a propriedade privada dificulta a constituição do commons? Neste caso, devemos ser a favor da propriedade privada em termos absolutos, sem qualquer mediação? Como poderia haver esfera pública, em termos sociais (não estatais), se a propriedade privada fosse uma espécie de “cláusula pétrea” da construção ideológica que permite alguém não ser comunista? E como poderia haver democracia, na base da sociedade e no cotidiano do cidadão, se não houvesse esfera pública?

Um último exemplo. Alguns – neste caso mais conservadores do que propriamente liberais – acham que não ser comunista está de algum modo associado à valorização da religião cristã. Mas o que tem uma religião (que se caracteriza pela adesão a um conjunto de crenças, tomadas como as únicas verdadeiras, contra todas as demais, consideradas falsas) a ver com isso? Alguém não pode ser amigo da pessoa – que, como toda pessoa, não morre – de Jesus de Nazaré: aquele judeu marginal que apareceu na Palestina dominada pelos romanos há dois mil anos, sem ter de legitimar qualquer religião que urdiram sobre sua memória?

A adesão à democracia não é o resultado de uma inferência lógica de um sistema doutrinário. É, simplesmente, uma escolha que se dá em outra zona de significação epistemológica. A opção pela democracia contra a autocracia antecede, ontologicamente falando, às derivações que se pode fazer a partir de um corpo de crenças.

Será que cognitivistas são capazes de entender isso? Platão não entenderia, como de fato não entendeu. Os sofistas – que eram mais interativistas do que cognitivistas – entenderiam, como de fato entenderam – e por isso foram, ao contrário de Platão, a favor da democracia e estão implicados na sua primeira invenção pelos atenienses da passagem do século 6 para o século 5 AEC.





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