Micelio

,

Segunda reflexão terrestre sobre a democracia

Alguns acham que a democracia é assim como um tipo de construção ideológica, que depende de um corpo de crenças teoricamente articulado e do qual se possa inferir consequências. Eles têm uma apreensão cognitivista – e não interativista – da democracia. Superavit de Platão ou deficit de Protágoras.

A adesão à democracia não é o resultado de uma inferência lógica de um sistema doutrinário. É, simplesmente, uma escolha que se dá em outra zona de significação epistemológica. A opção pela democracia contra a autocracia antecede, ontologicamente falando, às derivações que se pode fazer a partir de um corpo de crenças.

Como então poderíamos definir – em termos terrestres, quer dizer, não ideais – a democracia? Em primeiro lugar, reconhecendo que ela não é uma utopia, como já foi dito na Primeira reflexão terrestre sobre a democracia.

A democracia é um processo de desconstituição de autocracia (onde quer que ela se manifeste): mas no presente, não no futuro. Isso significa que, em qualquer área ou setor da atividade social (e não apenas no Estado), toda vez que você desconstitui autocracia – tornando modos de regulação de conflitos menos guerreiros e mais compatíveis com padrões de organização menos hierárquicos – está gerando democracia.

A democracia é gerada, usinada, produzida, não de uma vez e sim por golfadas. A dinâmica é intermitente. E o quantum de democracia gerada em um evento, não cresce por manutenção do que foi realizado, por uma prorrogação ou desenvolvimento do que aconteceu, tipo assim: uma plantinha que você vai regando até se tornar uma frondosa árvore. Não! Aconteceu, durou o que durou, e pronto! Nada garante que vai ficar ali para sempre, que aquela plantinha que virou árvore soltará sementes até termos uma grande floresta.

Infelizmente – ou felizmente, como veremos – a coisa não funciona assim. A democracia cresce, mas não como uma planta. Talvez uma metáfora melhor, para ficarmos nos reinos de seres vivos, seria a do fungo. Cada processo de democratização realizado solta esporos. Esses esporos podem florescer em seguida, mas também podem – o que não é infrequente – passar anos, séculos, milênios, soltos por aí, até perdidos no espaço sideral e… de repente, encontrando ambientes favoráveis, dar origem a um novo fungo, ou melhor, a uma rede miceliana, uma floresta de clones fúngicos subterrânea, toda interligada por hifas… no espaço-tempo dos fluxos!

A metáfora do fungo é melhor do que a da planta, porque, ao que tudo indica, a democracia – quer dizer, um processo de democratização ou de desconstituição de autocracia realizado – se esporaliza, não cresce para cima (como um pé de feijão), para baixo (como o cedro do Líbano) ou para os lados (como os ramos da abóbora).

Tudo depende, portanto, do ambiente adequado. Quem diria que os esporos usinados na Agora ateniense do século 5 AEC iriam encontrar um ambiente adequado para florescer na Inglaterra do século 17 da nossa era? De um ponto de vista do processo de democratização do Estado, essa explicação parece fazer sentido, pois a oposição à tirania dos psistrátidas em Atenas mantém muitos isomorfismos com a oposição ao poder despótico de Carlos I – mas só desse ponto de vista. Se considerarmos a democracia como modo-de-vida (ou de convivência social), os esporos produzidos na koinonia política dos antigos democratas gregos (durante quase dois séculos: um tempo incrivelmente longo para a democracia), floresceram em muitos lugares durante os dois últimos milênios (ainda que as experiências democráticas que eles ensejaram tenham sido, na sua maior parte, muito fugazes).

Que ambientes seriam esses, onde a democracia pode ser experimentada por tempo suficiente para produzir esporos? Como há um condicionamento recíproco entre modo de regulação (político) e padrão de organização (social), pode-se afirmar que tais ambientes são aqueles caracterizados pela abundância de caminhos, ou cuja topologia – mesmo que temporariamente – seja mais distribuída do que centralizada. Desde que tais ambientes sejam constituídos dentro de campos hierárquicos regidos por modos autocráticos. Sim, não há nenhum sentido falar em democracia para povos que não se organizavam hierarquicamente e não regulavam seus conflitos de modo guerreiro (e onde isso era determinante para a reprodução do seu modo-de-vida ou convivência social): a comunidade política dos democratas atenienses foi constituída sob a tirania de Hípias, o autocrata filho de Psístrato. Não haveria o menor sentido falar de democracia entre o povo Vinca (que floresceu às margens do Danúbio no sexto milênio), assim como não há o menor sentido falar de democracia entre os nossos Yanomamis dos dias atuais.

Mas como então tratar da democracia em países (quer dizer, Estados: no caso dos gregos a cidade-Estado de Atenas e no caso dos modernos o Estado-nação)? Estados, seja qual for a sua forma, não são ambientes adequados à democracia (pois sua topologia é sempre mais centralizada do que distribuída). Se a Pólis do século 5 AEC fosse a cidade-Estado de Atenas, não poderia ter havido democracia (e, como sabemos, só houve democracia porque ela, a Pólis, não era o Estado e sim a koinonia – a comunidade – política). No entanto, como a democracia dos modernos foi reduzida a um modo de administração política do Estado-nação, a questão permanece: considerando a predominância do modo de agenciamento chamado Estado, como poderíamos dizer se um regime político é ou não é democrático?

Colocada nesses termos, a questão só admite uma resposta. Quando um regime se diz democrático, isso quer dizer apenas que o funcionamento de suas instituições não está impedindo a continuidade do processo de democratização.

 

 

 

71 Comments

Leave a Reply
  1. Do you mind if I quote a few of your articles as long as I
    provide credit and sources back to your blog? My blog site is in the very same area of
    interest as yours and my visitors would definitely benefit from some of the
    information you provide here. Please let me know if this ok with
    you. Regards!

  2. Thanks for one’s marvelous posting! I actually enjoyed reading it, you happen to be a
    great author. I will always bookmark your blog and will come back in the foreseeable future.
    I want to encourage one to continue your great
    writing, have a nice afternoon!

  3. Awesome blog! Do you have any tips for aspiring writers? I’m planning
    to start my own website soon but I’m a little lost on everything.
    Would you propose starting with a free platform like WordPress or go for a paid option?
    There are so many options out there that I’m completely confused ..
    Any suggestions? Cheers!

  4. I’m really enjoying the design and layout of
    your website. It’s a very easy on the eyes which makes it much more pleasant for me to come here
    and visit more often. Did you hire out a designer to create your theme?
    Excellent work!

  5. After going over a handful of the articles on your web site, I really appreciate your
    technique of blogging. I bookmarked it to my bookmark webpage
    list and will be checking back soon. Take a look at my website as well and let me know what you think.

  6. Greetings! I’ve been following your web site for a long time
    now and finally got the courage to go ahead and give you a shout out from Porter Texas!
    Just wanted to mention keep up the fantastic job!

  7. hello there and thank you for your information – I have certainly
    picked up anything new from right here. I did however expertise
    several technical points using this site, as I experienced to reload the web site lots of times previous to I could get it to load properly.
    I had been wondering if your web host is OK? Not that I’m complaining, but slow loading instances times will sometimes
    affect your placement in google and could damage your high-quality score if ads
    and marketing with Adwords. Well I’m adding this RSS to my
    email and could look out for a lot more of
    your respective fascinating content. Make sure
    you update this again soon.

  8. I am extremely inspired along with your writing abilities and also with the layout for your blog.
    Is this a paid theme or did you modify it your self? Anyway keep up the excellent quality
    writing, it is rare to look a nice blog like this one nowadays..

  9. Excellent blog here! Additionally your website loads up fast!

    What web host are you the usage of? Can I am getting your affiliate link to your host?
    I desire my web site loaded up as quickly as yours lol

  10. Just want to say your article is as surprising. The clarity on your post is just cool and that i can assume
    you are an expert on this subject. Fine together with your permission allow me to clutch
    your RSS feed to stay updated with drawing close post.
    Thank you a million and please continue the rewarding
    work.

  11. Hello, I think your blog might be having browser
    compatibility issues. When I look at your blog in Chrome,
    it looks fine but when opening in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping.

    I just wanted to give you a quick heads up! Other then that, excellent blog!

  12. Hey there fantastic website! Does running
    a blog like this require a massive amount work?
    I’ve no understanding of coding but I was hoping to start my own blog in the near future.

    Anyways, should you have any ideas or tips for new blog owners please share.

    I understand this is off subject however I simply wanted to ask.
    Kudos!

  13. I’m gone to inform my little brother, that he should also
    pay a quick visit this webpage on regular basis to take updated from hottest information.

  14. Greetings from Colorado! I’m bored to death at work so I decided to
    check out your blog on my iphone during lunch break. I really
    like the knowledge you provide here and can’t wait to take a look when I get
    home. I’m surprised at how quick your blog loaded on my cell phone ..
    I’m not even using WIFI, just 3G .. Anyhow, superb site!

  15. you’re truly a excellent webmaster. The site loading speed is incredible.
    It seems that you’re doing any unique trick.
    In addition, The contents are masterwork. you have done a fantastic activity on this topic!

  16. We’re a bunch of volunteers and starting a new scheme in our community.
    Your web site offered us with valuable info to work on. You have done a formidable job and our entire
    group shall be thankful to you.

  17. Excellent post. I was checking constantly this blog and I am impressed!
    Extremely helpful info particularly the last part :) I care for
    such info much. I was looking for this particular info for a very long time.

    Thank you and best of luck.

  18. I am curious to find out what blog system you are utilizing?
    I’m experiencing some minor security issues with my latest site and I’d like to find something more secure.

    Do you have any recommendations?

  19. I know this if off topic but I’m looking into starting
    my own weblog and was wondering what all is needed to get
    set up? I’m assuming having a blog like yours would cost a pretty penny?
    I’m not very web smart so I’m not 100% positive.
    Any tips or advice would be greatly appreciated. Thanks

  20. Excellent way of describing, and good paragraph to take data on the topic of
    my presentation subject, which i am going to deliver in college.

  21. Awesome blog! Is your theme custom made or did you download it from somewhere?
    A design like yours with a few simple tweeks would really make my blog jump out.
    Please let me know where you got your theme. Thanks

  22. Wow that was unusual. I just wrote an extremely long comment but after
    I clicked submit my comment didn’t appear. Grrrr… well I’m not writing all that over
    again. Regardless, just wanted to say great blog!

  23. Excellent goods from you, man. I have remember your
    stuff prior to and you are just too magnificent. I really like what you’ve bought
    right here, certainly like what you are saying and the way in which by which you assert it.
    You make it enjoyable and you still care for to stay
    it wise. I can’t wait to learn far more from you.

    This is really a great web site.

  24. Does your blog have a contact page? I’m having trouble locating it but,
    I’d like to send you an email. I’ve got some
    suggestions for your blog you might be interested in hearing.

    Either way, great site and I look forward to seeing it expand
    over time.

  25. Great weblog here! Also your site so much up very fast!

    What web host are you using? Can I am getting your
    associate link for your host? I want my site loaded up as fast as yours lol

  26. With havin so much content and articles do you ever run into any problems of plagorism or
    copyright violation? My website has a lot of completely unique content I’ve either written myself or outsourced but it appears a lot of it is popping
    it up all over the internet without my permission. Do you know any methods to help prevent content from being
    ripped off? I’d certainly appreciate it.

  27. What’s up, this weekend is fastidious designed for me, because this moment i
    am reading this great informative piece of writing here at
    my house.

  28. Us Fast Shipping Meds [url=http://viagra.ccrpdc.com/generic-sildenafil.php]Generic Sildenafil[/url] Original Achat Levitra Pharmacie Cialis 100 Mg [url=http://viagra.ccrpdc.com/cheap-generic-viagra.php]Cheap Generic Viagra[/url] Pharmacy Express Canada Bienfaits De Clomid [url=http://kama1.xyz/kamagra-jelly.php]Kamagra Jelly[/url] Buy Levitra Online With Paypal Kamagra Original [url=http://cial1.xyz/buy-cialis-cheap.php]Buy Cialis Cheap[/url] Buy Cheap Tamoxifen Online Zithromax Skin Abscess [url=http://prozac.ccrpdc.com/prozac-online-pharmacy.php]Prozac Online Pharmacy[/url] Comprare Cialis Farmacia Can You Buy Atarax Over The Counter [url=http://cialis.ccrpdc.com/where-to-buy-cialis.php]Where To Buy Cialis[/url] Amoxicillin And Clavulanate Potassium Uses Buy Cheap Amoxicillin No Prescription [url=http://zol1.xyz/generic-zoloft-pricing.php]Generic Zoloft Pricing[/url] Viagra 19 Anos Cephalexin For Sinus [url=http://kama1.xyz/ordering-kamagra-online.php]Ordering Kamagra Online[/url] Venta Cialis Viagra Levitra Viagra Online Canada Overnight [url=http://xenical.ccrpdc.com/order-xenical-online.php]Order Xenical Online[/url] Cialis Wirkung Nebenwirkung Route Of Administration Amoxicillin [url=http://viag1.xyz/buy-cheap-viagra-200mg.php]Buy Cheap Viagra 200mg[/url] Site De Vente De Cialis Cozaar 50 Mg Without A Script [url=http://viag1.xyz/viagra-online-prices.php]Viagra Online Prices[/url] Dapoxetin Cheapest Brand Name Levitra [url=http://zol1.xyz/buy-zoloft-online.php]Buy Zoloft Online[/url] Purchasing Isotretinoin Skin Health Medication On Line Pharmacy Viagra [url=http://zol1.xyz/zoloft-online-pharmacy.php]Zoloft Online Pharmacy[/url] Clarina Kamagra Pas Cher [url=http://zol1.xyz/zoloft-online-prices.php]Zoloft Online Prices[/url] Antibiotics Double Vision Keflex Levitra Tabs [url=http://nolvadex.ccrpdc.com/cheapest-nolvadex.php]Cheapest Nolvadex[/url] Deutschlnd Drug Propecia Mercado Libre [url=http://prednisone.ccrpdc.com/prednisone-for-sale.php]Prednisone For Sale[/url] Mertropoltartatewithoutperscription Sildenafil Generic Viagra [url=http://cial5mg.xyz/cost-of-cialis.php]Cost Of Cialis[/url] Buy Cytotec 200mg Online Canada Rx Online [url=http://cial5mg.xyz/generic-cialis-100mg.php]Generic Cialis 100mg[/url] Secure Tab Stock Order Cialis Online Cialis 5mg Filmtabletten 28 Stuck Preis [url=http://nolvadex.ccrpdc.com/where-can-i-buy-nolvadex-pct.php]Where Can I Buy Nolvadex Pct[/url] Cheapviagra From India Nizagara From India [url=http://kama1.xyz/purchase-cheap-kamagra.php]Purchase Cheap Kamagra[/url] Buy Buspar Cheap Viagra Daily Dosage [url=http://cial1.xyz/brand-cialis-online.php]Brand Cialis Online[/url] Levothyroxine Canada No Prescription Comprare Levitra Controindicazioni [url=http://priligy.ccrpdc.com/priligy-60mg-buy.php]Priligy 60mg Buy[/url] Orlisatat Comprar Kamagra En Madrid [url=http://xenical.ccrpdc.com/generic-xenical-pricing.php]Generic Xenical Pricing[/url] Cialis Sin Receta Precio Achat Viagra Internet [url=http://cial5mg.xyz/order-cialis-in-usa.php]Order Cialis In Usa[/url] Secure Ordering Real Bentyl Price Best Website Viagra E Aspirina [url=http://prednisone.ccrpdc.com/generic-deltasone-usa.php]Generic Deltasone Usa[/url] Tedarise 20 Online Cheap 100mg Cialis Pills [url=http://zol1.xyz/prices-zoloft.php]Prices Zoloft[/url] Allergic To Penicillin Amoxicillin Ou Acheter Kamagra A Montreal [url=http://zol1.xyz/ordina-zoloft-online.php]Ordina Zoloft Online[/url] Side Effects Cephalexin Dogs Tomar Viagra Durar Mas [url=http://zol1.xyz/how-to-buy-zoloft.php]How To Buy Zoloft[/url] Propecia Online Non Prescription Diflucan Online Rx Drugs [url=http://prednisone.ccrpdc.com/generic-deltasone-20mg.php]Generic Deltasone 20mg[/url] Lasix Commander Propecia 10mg Or 5mg [url=http://prednisone.ccrpdc.com/online-generic-deltasone.php]Online Generic Deltasone[/url] Clomid Et Utrogestan Cephalexin Without A Prescrption [url=http://kama1.xyz/order-cheap-kamagra.php]Order Cheap Kamagra[/url] Amoxicillin 93 3109

  29. Attractive section of content. I just stumbled upon your
    website and in accession capital to claim that I acquire in fact loved account your weblog posts.
    Anyway I will be subscribing on your feeds and even I success
    you get entry to persistently rapidly.

  30. Unquestionably believe that which you said. Your favorite justification appeared to be on the
    web the simplest thing to be aware of. I say to you, I
    certainly get annoyed while people consider worries
    that they just don’t know about. You managed to
    hit the nail upon the top and defined out the whole thing without having side effect ,
    people could take a signal. Will probably be back to
    get more. Thanks

  31. Purchase Female Viagra Online [url=http://kama1.xyz/order-kamagra-on-line.php]Order Kamagra On Line[/url] Finasteride Vendita Propecia Online Who Has The Cheapest Levitra [url=http://cial5mg.xyz/order-cialis-tablets.php]Order Cialis Tablets[/url] Levitra 20mg 4 Stuck Preisvergleich Celebrex Online No Prescription [url=http://cial5mg.xyz/cialis-on-line.php]Cialis On Line[/url] Cephalexin Hydrochloride Propecia Generic India Propecia Levitra [url=http://viag1.xyz/viagra-online-store.php]Viagra Online Store[/url] Macrobid No Physician Approval Cialis Seguridad Social [url=http://zol1.xyz/zoloft-online-no.php]Zoloft Online No[/url] Clomid Hyperstimulation Osu Levitra Comprar [url=http://cial1.xyz/ordina-cialis-online.php]Ordina Cialis Online[/url] Amoxicillin Treatment Viagra Or Cialis With Works Best [url=http://cytotec.ccrpdc.com/cytotec-on-line.php]Cytotec On Line[/url] Cash On Delivery Levaquin Online Pills Populaires En Ligne Acheter Priligy Usa [url=http://zol1.xyz/buy-generic-zoloft.php]Buy Generic Zoloft[/url] Peut On Acheter Du Viagra Sans Ordonnance Ou Acheter Cialis En Ligne Forum [url=http://zol1.xyz/sertraline-no-prescription.php]Sertraline No Prescription[/url] Difference Cialis Et Viagra Viagra Generic Kaufen In Holland [url=http://cial5mg.xyz/ordina-cialis-online.php]Ordina Cialis Online[/url] Viagra Kaufen In Wien Cialis Cardiovasculaire [url=http://viagra.ccrpdc.com/viagra-online-cheap.php]Viagra Online Cheap[/url] Pharamcy Canada

  32. Can I just say what a relief to discover a person that actually understands what they are talking about on the internet.
    You definitely understand how to bring an issue to light and make it important.
    More people should check this out and understand
    this side of the story. I was surprised you aren’t more popular
    since you most certainly possess the gift.

  33. Greetings from Idaho! I’m bored at work so I decided to browse your blog on my iphone during lunch
    break. I really like the knowledge you provide
    here and can’t wait to take a look when I get home. I’m surprised at how fast your blog loaded on my phone ..
    I’m not even using WIFI, just 3G .. Anyhow,
    great blog!

  34. Very good blog! Do you have any hints for aspiring writers?
    I’m hoping to start my own site soon but I’m a little
    lost on everything. Would you propose starting with a free platform like WordPress or go for a paid option? There are so many choices out there that I’m completely overwhelmed ..
    Any tips? Thank you!

  35. Hi there! I could have sworn I’ve been to this site before but after checking through some of the
    post I realized it’s new to me. Nonetheless, I’m definitely delighted I found
    it and I’ll be bookmarking and checking back often!

  36. Undeniably believe that which you said. Your favorite reason seemed to be on the net
    the simplest thing to be aware of. I say to you,
    I definitely get annoyed while people think about worries that they just do not know about.
    You managed to hit the nail upon the top as well as defined out the whole thing without
    having side-effects , people can take a signal. Will likely be back to get
    more. Thanks

One Ping

  1. Pingback:

Deixe uma resposta

O seu endereço de e-mail não será publicado.

Loading…

Deixe seu comentário