Public plazas were scattered through every neighborhood in the republic of Tlaxcallan. Some had modest temples like this one built off to one side.
Public plazas were scattered through every neighborhood in the republic of Tlaxcallan. Some had modest temples like this one built off to one side.


Uma república na América pré-colombiana?

The candidate for political office stood in a plaza, naked, bracing himself against the punches and kicks. The crowd roared, pulsing around him like a beating heart. People for whom he had risked his life in war after war hurled blows and insults from all directions. The candidate breathed deeply. Trained as a warrior, he knew he had to stay calm to reach the next phase of his candidacy.

This ordeal, documented by a Spanish priest in the 1500s, was merely the beginning of the long process of joining the government of the Mesoamerican city of Tlaxcallan, built around 1250 C.E. in the hills surrounding the modern city of Tlaxcala, Mexico. After this trial ended, the candidate would enter the temple on the edge of the plaza and stay for up to 2 years, while priests drilled him in Tlaxcallan’s moral and legal code. He would be starved, beaten with spiked whips when he fell asleep, and required to cut himself in bloodletting rituals. But when he walked out of the temple, he would be more than a warrior: He would be a member of Tlaxcallan’s senate, one of the 100 or so men who made the city’s most important military and economic decisions.

“I’d like to see modern politicians do all that, just to prove they can govern,” says archaeologist Lane Fargher, standing in the shadow of one of Tlaxcallan’s recently restored elevated plazas. Fargher has led surveys and excavations here since 2007, studying the urban plan and material culture of a type of society many archaeologists once believed they’d never find in Mesoamerica: a republic. “Twenty or 25 years ago, no one would have accepted it was organized this way,” says Fargher, who works at the research institute Cinvestav in Mérida, Mexico.

Now, thanks in part to work led by Fargher’s mentor Richard Blanton, an anthropologist at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana, Tlaxcallan is one of several premodern societies around the world that archaeologists believe were organized collectively, where rulers shared power and commoners had a say in the government that presided over their lives.

These societies were not necessarily full democracies in which citizens cast votes, but they were radically different from the autocratic, inherited rule found—or assumed—in most early societies. Building on Blanton’s originally theoretical ideas, archaeologists now say these “collective societies” left telltale traces in their material culture, such as repetitive architecture, an emphasis on public space over palaces, reliance on local production over exotic trade goods, and a narrowing of wealth gaps between elites and commoners.

“Blanton and his colleagues opened up a new way of examining our data,” says Rita Wright, an archaeologist at New York University in New York City who studies the 5000-year-old Indus civilization in today’s India and Pakistan, which also shows signs of collective rule. “A whole new set of scholarship has emerged about complex societies.”

“I think it’s a breakthrough,” agrees Michael E. Smith, an archaeologist at Arizona State University (ASU) in Tempe. “I’ve called it the most important work in the archaeology of political organization in the last 20 years.” He and others are working to extend Blanton’s ideas into a testable method, hoping to identify collective states solely through the objects they left behind.

Democracy isn’t a one-shot deal that happened one time. It comes and goes, and it’s very difficult to sustain.

Richard Blanton, Purdue University

Back in the 1960s, Blanton’s teachers and peers didn’t think collective societies existed in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica. Premodern republics such as classical Athens and medieval Venice were thought to be a purely European phenomenon. Conventional wisdom held that in premodern, non-Western societies, despots simply extracted labor and wealth from their subjects.

Some Mesoamerican cultures do seem to fit the despotic model. More than 2000 years ago in the Olmec capitals of San Lorenzo and La Venta along the Mexican gulf coast, for example, kings had their portraits carved into gargantuan stone heads and lived in palaces dripping with exotic luxury goods like greenstone and iron mirrors. Centuries later, Classic period Mayan kings in southern Mexico and Guatemala recorded their conquests, marriages, and dynasties in glyphs carved into stone. Meanwhile, commoners lived humbly in settlements dispersed around the city’s core of pyramids and monuments.

But as Blanton logged year after year of surveys and excavations in Mexico, he noticed an increasingly long list of sites that didn’t conform to these expectations. For example, Monte Albán, the capital of the Zapotec people in Oaxaca between 500 B.C.E. and 800 C.E., lacked the ostentatious representations of individual rulers so common in Olmec and classical Maya art. It also seemed to be devoid of palaces and royal tombs stocked with precious goods. Instead, signs of authority were more anonymous, linked to cosmological symbols and enduring deities rather than specific individuals.

Intrigued by such outliers, Blanton and three co-authors worked up a new theory, published in 1996 in Current Anthropology. Based largely on Mesoamerican examples, they laid out two forms that governments could take, which Blanton now terms autocratic and collective. Autocratic governments were based on the authority of an individual ruler and often supported by wealth acquired by monopolizing natural resources or controlling trade. Think of the Olmec, who controlled key gulf coast trade routes, or even present-day Saudi Arabia, Blanton says, “where the royal family controls the oil industry and uses that to fund the state’s activity. They don’t have to be accountable to the people.”

Teotihuacan puzzles archaeologists: It shows signs of both autocratic rule (this grand avenue and pyramids) and collectivity (a grid of roads and no depictions of kings). © Marcos Ferro/Aurora Photos

Collective systems emphasized the office of the ruler, which in theory could be occupied by anyone in the society: Leaders were made, not born. Taxes rather than external wealth funded the state and its leaders. Tlaxcallan, with its political initiation rite to bring people from all classes into the governing council, had a collective government. So do the United States and India. “Collective” in this usage does not mean “socialist,” Blanton adds. Most of the collective societies he has studied have marketbased economies, which create taxpayers rich enough to contribute to public goods.

Blanton’s perspective “was very stimulating,” Wright says. “For a very long time within archaeology, we’d been looking for markers of a king.” Now, researchers had a theory for making sense of seemingly kingless societies. But to study ancient societies without historical records, archaeologists need to know what distinctive material traces such a collective society might leave behind. “What would it actually look like on the ground—that was a big problem,” Blanton says. “How would we recognize these states?”

“Over there is where we found the house,” Fargher says. He skirts the platform that once held one of Tlaxcallan’s largest public plazas and heads to a patch of bare earth surrounded by green grass. In the distance Popocatépetl, Mexico’s most famous volcano, gently puffs smoke into the clear winter sky.

Fargher points to faint rocky lines in the sandy earth, where walls stood 600 years ago. “It was a series of small rooms that were rebuilt several times, with a patio over here,” he says, moving through the compact space. By all appearances it was nothing special, a typical house for a typical commoner.

Writer Lizzie Wade talks about her story on democracy in early Mesoamerica: listen podcasts at

“But look where we are,” Fargher says. “Right in front of a very public space. In any other Mesoamerican site, next to the principal plaza you’d have an enormous palace. Here we have a pretty humble house.”

Such reversals are par for the course in Tlaxcallan, Fargher says. “This is like Superman’s Bizarro World. Everything is the inverse of what you expect for Mesoamerica.”

Most Mesoamerican cities were centered on a monumental core of pyramids and plazas. In Tlaxcallan, the plazas were scattered throughout every neighborhood, with no clear center or hierarchy. Rather than ruling from the heart of the city, as kings did, Fargher believes Tlaxcallan’s senate likely met in a grand building he found standing alone 1 kilometer outside the city limits. This distributed layout is also a sign of shared political power, he says.

Archaeologists have unearthed versions of this unusual layout in a handful of other Mesoamerican cities. One is the city of Tres Zapotes along the gulf coast, which flourished from 400 B.C.E. to 300 C.E., in the centuries immediately following the fall of La Venta, the last Olmec capital. Although the citizens of Tres Zapotes retained many Olmec cultural practices, their city looked nothing like the capitals that came before, says Christopher Pool, an archaeologist at the University of Kentucky in Lexington who has spent the last 20 years excavating there. Instead of being centered on an opulent palace, Tres Zapotes had four plazas regularly spaced throughout the city. Each one had the same layout of earthen pyramids and public spaces, and radiocarbon dates revealed they were occupied at the same time. Pool concluded that during its height, four factions cooperated to govern Tres Zapotes.

Collective societies tend to lay out their cities in standardized ways, with the largest ones even using grids, says Blanton, which ease navigation both for residents and for a government providing services. In the Indus capital of Mohenjo-daro in today’s Pakistan, for example, the art depicts few individual people, and houses built with standard-sized bricks line regularly spaced city blocks. The strict urban plan incorporated wells and allowed thousands of people to use toilets connected to the world’s first sewers.

A tale of two cities

Just before the arrival of the Spanish, two very different powers battled in the heart of modern-day Mexico. Tenochtitlan, the autocratic capital of the Mexica Empire, conquered almost every society in its path, extracting tribute and human sacrifices from thousands of kilometers away. The only resistance: Tlaxcallan, a collective republic just over the mountains that fiercely defended its freedom.

(Graphic) G. Grullón/Science; (Data) L. F. Fargher et al., Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 313, 317 (2011) © Elsevier

Another common feature of collective societies is economic equality, which archaeologists can infer from comparing the goods of rich and poor people. In autocratic societies like the classical Maya, luxury goods such as intricately painted pottery and jade are only found in palaces and royal tombs. In contrast, in Tlaxcallan people of all classes seemed to have owned and used pottery with ornate, multicolor designs. “You can’t tell rich people from poor people based on their stuff,” Fargher says. Pool sees a similarly narrow wealth gap at Tres Zapotes. And in classical Athens, perhaps the most famous premodern democracy, “wealthy people lived in houses that were similar to the common people,” Blanton says.

But ASU’s Smith cautions that economic equality doesn’t guarantee that political power is shared at the top. “There is an association [between them], but that doesn’t make inequality a measure of collectivity, or the reverse,” he says. And although he agrees that a city’s layout offers clues to governance, he notes that excavations often focus on a site’s central core and may miss outlying plazas. To firm up the link, archaeologists need more data from the outskirts of cities and more rigorous statistical methods to interpret them, he says.

By the time a candidate underwent Tlaxcallan’s political initiation rite, he had already proved his valor in war. For centuries the state was locked in battle against the Mexica Empire, whose capital Tenochtitlan lay just over the mountains to the west. There, in what is now Mexico City, a noble lineage of kings ruled from a grand central plaza. Tlaxcallan was the only polity in the region that fended off Mexica control, turning it into something of an economic and political island.

Historical sources say the Mexica (called the Aztecs today) imposed a trade blockade to weaken their rivals. Although Fargher has found that some imperial goods, like salt and green obsidian, still flowed into Tlaxcallan, out of 10 tons of ceramics he has uncovered in the city, only three or four pieces are Mexica style. The ratio of carbon isotopes in skeletons recovered from under the plazas indicates that corn—which could be locally produced and stored—dominated people’s diets to an exceptional degree, even in corn-rich Mesoamerica. All this suggests that Tlaxcallan must have relied on its own citizens, rather than trade or natural resources, to fund its activities.

No written sources chronicle the economy of Tres Zapotes. But there, too, imported goods were scarce, Pool says, which means that the four ruling factions also must have relied on internal resources. The pattern is a stark contrast to its predecessor La Venta, where autocratic rulers controlled trade and enjoyed exotic luxuries.

Both cities support Blanton and Fargher’s belief that the best predictor of collective rule is a strong internal revenue source—that is, taxes. Revenue sources are admittedly difficult to detect from artifacts and buildings. But after surveying 30 premodern societies documented ethnographically and historically, the researchers found that states with internal revenue sources were characterized by a high level of public goods and services, a strong governmental bureaucracy, and citizens empowered to judge the ruler’s actions. “When taxpayers are paying for the state, then the people in charge know they have to do the right thing,” Blanton says.

Collective states may have another tendency that can be spotted archaeologically: They attract people from beyond their borders, who bring artifacts that can be linked to other cultures. “When you have a collective formation that’s funded by internal resources, it’s in the interest of those in government to bring in more people,” says Gary Feinman, an archaeologist at The Field Museum in Chicago, Illinois, and a co-author on Blanton’s 1996 paper. Economic equality and markets may also attract immigrants to collective societies. “People move where they think there’s better opportunity—where they can make a living, where their kids are going to do better than they did. That’s always a motivation,” Feinman says.

Tlaxcallan was home to several different ethnic groups, many of whom were refugees fleeing Mexica domination, according to the Spanish chronicles. “They were absorbed by Tlaxcallan on the condition that they defend the state,” says Aurelio López Corral, the archaeologist who leads Mexico’s National Institute of Anthropology and History’s work at the site. The best warriors, no matter their ethnicity, were eligible to join the senate—if they could endure the initiation. “It’s the opposite of ethnic nationalism,” says archaeologist David Carballo of Boston University (BU).

Tlaxcalteca warriors helped the Spanish conquer the nearby centralized city of Tenochtitlan in 1521. Conquistador Hernán Cortés included this map of Tenochtitlan in his second letter to the Spanish crown. Newberry Library, Chicago, llinois/Bridgeman Images

The evidence isn’t always so easy to read, however. About 100 kilometers from Tlaxcallan lies a very different monumental site: Teotihuacan, which dominated central Mexico between about 100 C.E. and 550 C.E. The broad Avenue of the Dead bisects the city, lined with imposing structures including the enormous Pyramids of the Sun, Moon, and Feathered Serpent. “This is a grand city,” says archaeologist Saburo Sugiyama at Aichi Prefectural University in Nagakute, Japan, who has excavated some of the city’s most iconic places, including the pyramids. “There was a very strong rulership that planned and executed this monumental project.” He envisions this leader as a typical autocrat—a king who wielded great military might—based partly on weapons and bellicose imagery found together with the remains of a mass human sacrifice and burial in the Pyramid of the Feathered Serpent.

Yet Linda Manzanilla, an archaeologist at the National Autonomous University of Mexico in Mexico City who has been excavating at Teotihuacan since the 1970s, sees the exact same city in a different way. She notes that it is laid out in a grid, with common citizens living in standardized apartment buildings distributed regularly throughout it. Major avenues divided the city into four quadrants, she says. Each quadrant had its own iconography—flying animals, felines, serpents, or coyotes—that dominated its art and ceramics; under the centrally located Pyramid of the Moon, sacrificed animals from each group were found together. The art depicts no individual leaders or dynasties, and Manzanilla argues that Teotihuacan was governed by a council of four leaders, each representing a different quadrant—a type of collective government. At Teotihuacan, “Groups are more important than individuals,” she says.

The different interpretations highlight the challenges of applying Blanton’s model. Smith notes that there is always some ambiguity about the political significance of a site’s physical features. For example, the Indus civilization’s standardized housing and sophisticated water control systems can be seen as signs of shared power, but they have also been interpreted as evidence of totalitarian control. “Until someone comes up with a model that’s rigorous and accepted by everyone, in my mind this is all going to be fairly subjective and speculative,” Smith says.

BU’s Carballo argues that the form of government may not even be the most important measure of what Blanton terms collectivity. He points to an enormous obsidian workshop he excavated in an outlying neighborhood of Teotihuacan as a sign that commoners organized themselves at the grassroots level, no matter who ruled from the Avenue of the Dead. That makes Teotihuacan a collective society, even if it turns out to have had a single king, he argues.

It may be that societies like Teotihuacan simply don’t fall into neat categories, Pool says. Or they may shift strategies over time. At Tres Zapotes, for example, elite factions may have shared power within the city, but the capital dominated nearby towns, which all had one central plaza modeled on the Tres Zapotes layout. Then, slowly, autocracy crept back into Tres Zapotes itself. Around 1 C.E., the four plaza groups lost their architectural coherence and individual rulers once again appeared in the city’s art.

Collective governments do tend to rise and fall in cycles, Blanton says. In Oaxaca, the political pendulum swung between collectivity and autocracy every 200 to 300 years, judging from shifts in the layouts of dominant sites and histories recorded by colonial chroniclers. “Democracy isn’t a one-shot deal that happened one time. It comes and goes, and it’s very difficult to sustain,” he says.

History had a special irony in store for the republic of Tlaxcallan when the Spanish arrived. After centuries of resisting the Mexica Empire, the Tlaxcaltecas finally saw an opportunity to destroy their enemies. They allied with conquistador Hernán Cortés, helping him plan attacks on Tenochtitlan and sheltering his army after its initial crushing defeat, which allowed the Spanish forces to regroup and try again—this time successfully. “I’m not sure the conquest would have been possible without Tlaxcallan assistance,” Fargher says.

But as soon as the Tlaxcaltecas became subjects of the Spanish crown, the republic was gone. People abandoned their hilltop plazas and moved down into the valley, settling the modern city of Tlaxcala. When Mexico won independence from Spain 3 centuries after the conquest, the Tlaxcaltecas were cast as traitors, their society almost entirely forgotten. It took another 100 years before revolution returned democracy to Mexico’s constitution. Now, ambitious candidates once again fight for their political futures—not in the plaza, but at the ballot box.

DOI: 10.1126/science.aal0905

Lizzie Wade

Lizzie is Science’s Latin America correspondent, based in Mexico City.

Cf. um artigo em português sobre o tema, de Beatriz Montesanti (20/03/2017), em Nexo.

Quais os sinais de existência de uma república na América pré-colombiana

Beatriz Montesanti, Nexo,  20 Mar 2017

Estudos arqueológicos apontam para o fato de que também na mesoamérica existiam sociedades complexas de organização coletiva

Até bem pouco tempo acreditava-se que sociedades organizadas pré-modernas eram uma exclusividade europeia. A clássica Atenas e a Veneza medieval eram (e por vezes ainda são) vistas como exemplo da “civilização”, enquanto nas demais partes do mundo se estabelecia a barbárie governada por déspotas.

Essa perspectiva vem sendo quebrada pela historiografia há alguns anos, e descobertas mais recentes confirmam: sociedades mesoamericanas possivelmente já se organizavam aos moldes de uma república, muito antes da chegada de Colombo ao continente, em 1492.

A mesoamérica corresponde à parte intermediária do continente americano, que compreende o sul do México, Guatemala, El Salvador, Belize, Nicarágua, Honduras e Costa Rica. A cidade de Tlaxcallan, construída em 1250 d.C., localizada onde hoje é o México, tinha uma espécie de senado em sua organização política, composto por cerca de 100 homens responsáveis pelas decisões mais importantes da comunidade.

Para tornar-se um membro, candidatos passavam por um processo que envolvia greve de fome, linchamento público e anos de estudo. Localizada no topo de montanhas, a comunidade era a única resistência às conquistas de Tenochtitlan, capital do antigo Império Asteca que, em seu auge, controlou boa parte da região central do atual México. “Há 25 anos, ninguém aceitaria que [Tlaxcallan] era organizada dessa forma”, disse à revista “Science” o arqueólogo Lane Fargher, que desde 2007 conduz escavações nas ruínas locais.

Tlaxcallan não era exatamente uma democracia tal como conhecemos hoje, nas quais cidadãos votam para eleger seus representantes, mas apresentava um conjunto de características que se opunha ao de autocracias vizinhas.

Sinais da República

Estes são os indícios que fazem os especialistas levantarem a hipóteses de que a antiga cidade de Tlaxcallan tinha uma organização política mais horizontal.


Em vez de palácios, pirâmides e praças monumentais, os resquícios de Tlaxcallan apontam para a existência de casas modestas para abrigar até mesmo as autoridades políticas. O senado, acredita-se, era localizado a 1 km de distância dos limites da cidade – um sinal da descentralização política. As construções são tipicamente padronizadas, com casas organizadas de forma a facilitar a locomoção de residentes e políticos, além de prover serviços necessários.


Fontes históricas mostram que os Astecas, sociedade então dominante, impôs uma série de bloqueios comerciais para enfraquecer seus adversários. Como consequência, os tlaxcala se alimentavam majoritariamente de milho, produzido localmente. Na ausência de comércio, a cidade subsistia mediante o pagamento de impostos – considerado um forte indicativo de um governo coletivo. “Quando a população está pagando para o Estado, as pessoas no poder sabem que devem fazer a coisa certa”, explica o antropólogo Richard Blanton.


O nível de desigualdade no interior de sociedades arcaicas é averiguado pela comparação entre os bens dos mais ricos e dos mais pobres. No caso de Tlaxcallan, constatou-se que pessoas de todas as classes pareciam utilizar cerâmicas ornadas e coloridas, em oposição, por exemplo, à civilização Maia, na qual jarros decorados apenas eram encontrados em grandes palácios e tumbas da realeza.

Autocracias versus sistemas coletivos

De acordo com o antropólogo Richard Blanton, sociedades consideradas autocráticas eram caracterizadas pela autoridade de um único indivíduo, geralmente sustentado na riqueza advinda do monopólio dos recursos naturais e das trocas comerciais.

Sistemas ditos coletivos, por sua vez, enfatizam o ofício do governante, mais do que o indivíduo em si. Isso significa que, em teoria, qualquer pessoa da sociedade poderia assumir o cargo de líder: o poder é entendido como uma coisa pública. O Estado, construído coletivamente, era sustentado mediante o pagamento de impostos.

Tlaxcallan não é a única sociedade a se organizar de forma mais próxima de uma República na mesoamérica. Os mesmo sinais foram localizados em Monte Albán, por exemplo, capital dos Zapotecas entre 500 a.C. e 800 d.C. Evidências semelhantes também mudaram a perspectiva sobre as sociedades anciãs hindus da Índia e do Paquistão.

As descobertas têm alterado a forma como sociedades consideradas complexas são estudadas. Com a literatura construída sobre o tema, arqueólogos esperam poder identificar o tipo de organização política de determinada sociedade apenas a partir dos objetos que seus membros deixaram para trás, escreve a “Science”.

Evidências, no entanto, podem ser lidas de diversas formas. Na historiografia, interpretações diferentes foram dadas aos mesmos fatos, alterando a narrativa de povos e lugares. O modelo proposto por Blanton, portanto, não deixa de ser especulativo e subjetivo. Ainda assim, foi bem recebido por outros cientistas e dá um passo importante nos estudos dos povos americanos.

Em particular, faz avançar os estudos sobre Tlaxcallan, sociedade relegada ao esquecimento até bem pouco tempo. Isso porque na época da chegada espanhola, seus cidadãos se aliaram aos estrangeiros para combater o Império Asteca – como consequência, passaram a ser considerados traidores após a independência do México em relação à Espanha.





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  21. you sound like me. unread emails, a full google reader, and sink full of dishes? I might start sweating bullets. Yes those things “annoy” me, but the bigger question is why do I (we) let it. We cannot control everything, even though it feels like we need to. Excess control leads to excess isolation and release via exercise, amen? Working on it!! hugs,

  22. skoÅ„czmy wreszcie z fikcjÄ… – to nie KRZYÅ», to Goebbelsowka propaganda próbujÄ…ca wmówić nam, że brat brata byÅ‚ wielkim prezydentem i że wszyscy tak myÅ›lÄ… – oni zgodnie z naukami Goebbelsa bÄ™dÄ… mówli to tak dÅ‚ugo i gÅ‚oÅ›no, aż kÅ‚amstwo stanie siÄ™ prawdÄ…!!!!

  23. Przyjemnie się czytało, mam podobne przypadki, tzn wiem ile znaczy być TOP1 a ile być jedno czy dwa oczka niżej. Nareszcie coś ożywczego i konkretnego w polskim seo.

  24. Fu lá no blog do Josias e li o seguinte:”Farc fazem dez reféns no noroeste da Colômbia”E os “cumpanheiros” do Foro de São Paulo querem se transformar num partido político, para futuramnte disputar as eleições presidenciais na Colômbia?Desse jeito, nem mesmo com a orientação de LL, conseguirão!

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  26. Que divertido! Mis amigas y yo casi nunca coincidimos pero es muy imoortante ese tiempo de estar juntas, ponernos al día y concentirnos ya sea con una ida a la playa o a cenar. Me gustan mucho los productos Nivea, humectan la piel y la dejan de show!

  27. no soy quien pata pedirte nada verdad, pero en mediafire se descarga según yo mas rápido que en putlocker y en jumbofiles, no lo dejes morir jejeje, bueno claro que eres tu quien decideo el futuro de tus subidas muchas gracias..

  28. By Das ist halt die Frage, denn google wird sicherlich nicht an den Qualitätsrichtlinien Abstriche machen wollen. Das bedeutet, dass die Grundlagen für ein Ranking evtl. leicht variiert, aber viele Kriterien werden immer noch bestand haben. Habe ich nun eine größere Anzahl an Domains, habe ich auch eine häufiere Ranking Möglichkeit. “Quasi Google Lotto”

  29. mmm qué buena pinta!!! Esta receta suena muy apetecible y me parece una buena manera de dar variedad a las 5 o 6 veces que aparece la pechuga de pollo en mi mesa cada semana.El toque ácido dulce de la mandarina debe contrastar muy bien con la carne y el relleno de albaricoques, tengo mucha curiosidad por probarlo, seguro que es una delicia.Besitos!!

  30. the drugs change brain chemistry but denies they change the functioning of the nervous system overall. There’s a fundamental refusal to look realistically at these drugs, their benefits, and their risks.This is how patients are damaged — by a phony risk-benefit assessment because doctors won’t acknowledge adverse effects. You’re right to be enraged!

  31. she’d spent sometime with a lady who she’d noticed had a large makeup bag in her handbag. She’d made the lady up and in a rare moment of clarity, the lady smiled and thanked her…..I’d so pleased my young lady had the time to think what would make someone else happy.

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  37. Thankyou for your kind words… I am worse now with an added problem so I feel it is not in the cards… and I am just to be alone and die alone. Even on the sites where you pay they are still all about sex and want the women skinny and ready. I give up.God Bless you for your sweet note…Rev. CJ

  38. Ok Il Cuculo #28 concordo sullo smaltimento e recupero, dovrebbe essere il minimo da fare (Europa e non), ma anche un reddito da Cittadinanza non sarebbe la "fine del mondo"…oppure si???SD

  39. Well I must admit that I come here several times daily! Your blog is addictive lol. I can’t remember how I found it but, I’m glad I did…..Doesn’t it feel really good though to know that so many people read your blog? And to think that you’re touchin’ folk in Africa. That’s dope! I love technology!

  40. Also bevor ich die relative Zeit kaufe (verursacht durch einen Riss im Raum-Zeit-Kontinuum, der vielleicht durch das Ritual mit den unwahrscheinlichen Pokerhänden in CR ausgelöst wurde ?) glaube ich lieber, dass es zwölf verschiedene James Bond gibt…Aber ansonsten finde ich, dass ihr euch erst mal noch durch ein wenig Sekundärliteratur arbeiten solltet, denn der Punkt ist ja voll wichtig, das muss jetzt geklärt werden… unbedingt…

  41. Even the peoples of communist ruled eastern and central Europe during the worst excesses of Stalinism wouldn't have put up with that shit for one second.A kind of affirmative action in the form of formal quotas (that were never never officially acknowledged), flourished in the USRR. The purpose: to develop "national cadres" in the republics (various -stans in particular).

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  45. Fleuve noirPierre Lambert : Avez-vous conscience des horreurs que vous écrivez ? Qu’est-ce que c’est que ce cap N….. malheureux ! Pas de ce vocabulaire raciste s’il vous plaît, c’est le cap Homme-de-couleur.Ah… malheureux, vous même ! Auriez-vous loupé un épisode ?Ph. H. (le 11 octobre 2009 à 11:33) : L’euphémisme hypocrite “homme de couleur” n’est plus employé que par les racistes.(pouf pouf) PS : Ben oui, faudrait pas prendre Fayçal pour une tête de Turc…

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  48. What do they think Trudeau and Mulclair have been doing all along when it comes to Quebec they have been trying to create a ‘FIREWALL’ around Quebec.Quebec has been building or has done so already built a FIREWALL around them.

  49. Note de blog humoristique… même si ce qu’a fait Sarkozy hier, c’est montrer qu’il a géré la crise d’une main de maître ( industrie de l’auto en France ? Toujours là ! On veut parler de General Motors ? Des autres pays ? ) par rapport à un paquet d’autres gouvernements… n’en déplaise à ceux qui pense d’abord façon télé et ne réfléchisse pas ensuite.

  50. Montcalm,I agree with you on that score….the detectorists who specialize in beach hunting do make some stunning gold finds.In my case since I detect almost exclusively in urban green spaces the gold and silver jewelry I find is the exception rather than the rule.Salutations mon ami!Regards + HHBill

  51. Hej Mette,Nu ved jeg ikke, hvad din højde er og kan derfor ikke beregne dit BMI, men med den vægt du har, vil jeg faktisk tro, at du er normalvægtig. Når du er normalvægtig kan det være meget svært at tabe sig yderligere, fordi der netop ikke er ret meget fedt at tabe af. Hvis du er normalvægtig kan jeg ikke anbefale, at du bliver ved mat følge kuren.Hilsen Sanne

  52. Those aren't just any youngsters, RuneE. I noticed that they are joined by Supergirl on the far right.The way most of the group is so captivated, it does make one wonder what they were looking at.

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  54. ania_niutAugust 5, 2012OMG Dom and his tragedy. Shame on him. Hmmm I came up with an idea… You have to wait with gnb’s translation. Firstly, you should learn italian. It’d be much more fun if you wrote italian quotes in italian, english in english and so on:D

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  62. Eso no es nuevo., en este pais quieren disminir la delincuencia , sin envargo los primeros delincuentes son ellos….y eso ahora tuvimos la oportunidad de ver este asesinato a sangre dria…y lo que no hemos podido ver., Viereon con que cara tannnnn limpia el oficial da el detalle de como sucedieron los hechos. " !!!QUE DESCONSIERTO"::::Que sera de nuestros hijos, DIOS NOS AMPARE.

  63. Youngsters please don’t join patent office as examiner….this office will take your dreams and will throw you in the darkness of big zero….no promotion salary hike ….nothing….

  64. What a shame you missed a golden opportunity here. These are the times you are suppose you take advantage and teach your child what this book was about. If you think your protecting your child your sadly mistaken lady. God help it when your son faces real life racism and won’t know how to deal with it because his mother was to busy shielding him instead of educating him.

  65. Personellement…Une femme que j’trouverais un peu moins jolie physiquement peut gagner beaucoup de point si elle est intelligente et cultivée…Dans le sens où MOI ca change ma perception de sa beauté et j’la trouve plus belle si j’ai pas le gout de dire ta gueule quand elle ouvre la bouche…..C’pas mutuellement exclusif…Des gars beau intelligent et cultivé ca s’peut ? Tk moi j’y crois…Ben des femmes aussi ca s’peut…Magasine ailleurs si tu trouves pas les 3 points dans une…

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  70. That's almost worth laying money on the Dems at 4:1 with no vig. A lot could happen between now and November. Like the Spawn of Satan busting out of Sarah Palin's belly live on Fox News, for example.

  71. Eh sì, per quanto il “celeste” si affanni a difendersi attacando, come una vipera calpestata, dimostra solo quanto sia attaccato al potere, da non poterne evidentemente farne a meno. E ha dimostrato abbondantemente quale sia il concetto di moralità, pubblica e privata, di certi cattolici in politica, soprattutto quelli che assurgono alle più alte cariche e pretendono addirittura di essere “memores Domini”….

  72. "LOL! Cactusrose, you know what's funny? That is exactly how I sit when I go into a public place."Yeah, me too, whenever possible!Cuz you can never be too ready!LOL!But on a serious note, aside from parenting etc, I feel that another important factor is "example",and, let's face it, what kind of example is the government setting?

  73. Yhdyn fiilikseen. On poltettu jo tarpeeksi kynttilöitä ja nautittu hämäränhyssystä. Sais tulla jo kevät ja lämmittävä aurinko…No, hyvä on haaveilla ja mielessään sisustaa terassia.Ja kiva katsella sun blogikuvia:)

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  76. SalutWow, ces photos d’animaux. Très impressionnant, les différents animaux que vous voyez que ce. Super, geniessts, Du mois d’août, puis à nouveau, plus de vaches…Cordialement, Katja et Fam.

  77. ERREUR ! Concernant la dette, il faut prendre en compte le budget 2012 qui a déjà été voté (de même qu’on laisse de côté le déficit de l’année 2007). D’après l’INSEE, le déficit cette année atteindra 122,1 milliards d’euros. Sur l’ensemble du quinquennat, la dette de la France aura donc augmenté de 627,8 milliards d’euros.

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  79. Reminds more of the image of a 19th century “company town” – owned, operated, and employees/families billed to live and work there. Under the complete control of the owner.Or it is like a 19th/20th century landowner and his tenant farmers……completely at the mercy of the landowner.

  80. Once again, a portion of your post echoes the desire of my heart. Tonight it is this: “My prayer for your life and mine is for a blatant and sacred intersection between Love’s heart and ours. I pray for eyes to see him when he walks in a room. I pray for hearts to receive him when he knocks at the door. I pray for ears to hear him when he calls from the shore. And I pray for the “yes” to answer him when he asks for our more.”I pray that my response to Him will be even more passionate, more grateful, more deeply felt…

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  85. This fascinated me, i adore mysteries etc. i also found Al1′s website! however i came to realize that it might not be real, as the ”unidentified” body has a picture with it, it goes without saying that if it was really unidentified they would not be able to match a picture with it, however i think this story, real or not real, presents a really good moral, nothing good comes from being greedy. On the other hand human instinct draws us to these things, curiosity can be a persons biggest downfall. Isn’t it funny that a human instinct, that *life* such as curiosity can lead us to *death*.VA:F [1.9.21_1169](from 4 votes)

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  92. “I think Czar is the Polish spelling, which got into English somehow.”No, Polish cz = English ch as in char. Tsar/czar in Polish is ‘car’ (c = ts as in cats for most Eastern European languages)It’s more likely to be an old Hungarian spelling where cz = English ts in cats. In modern Hungarian this is only found in some proper names. Modern Hungarian tsar/czar is cár.I’m not sure how an old ugro-finnic spelling ended up in English to represent a Slavic word….

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  98. – The counter to admitting that not everything I say is the gospel is people coming down on me for being too declarative or negative. I am not Bill Simmons. I do not remember Koko B. Ware and call that loving wrestling. Not everybody reads every column and we’re getting new readers every week, so I feel like I should recap a few things to keep everybody on the same page. It’s not being a tool, it’s writing to a bigger audience than the people already reading.Argh I wish I had money and shitty celebrity friends like Bill Simmons.

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  101. Saya menggunakan daihatsu zebra tahun 2004, saya ada keluhan mengenai ac-nya. Jika dalam kondisi macet atau berhenti, ac tidak dingin, baru dingin lagi setelah jalan. Terus pada panel termostatnya selalu terdengar bunyi “klik..klik..klik” jika dalam kondisi mobil berhent/macet. Mohon sarannya dan jika ada beberapa spare part yg harus diganti, berapa kira-kira biayanya. Terima kasih

  102. Per AdpNon sarà molto significativo perché mi riferisco a 15 anni fa quando ho vissuto in California per lavoro; una sera hanno trasmesso un servizio incentrato sulla superficie di pelle usualmente mostrata nei programmi della televisione italiana.Ovviamente sotto il parlato scorrevano spezzoni abbastanza eloquenti, volgari e pecorecci.Non vorrei passare per bacchettone (non lo sono proprio) ma in quella occasione mi sono parecchio vergognato.

  103. BELO HORIZONTE,27 DE ABRIL DE 2011Prezado senhoes nos anunciamos que tam no proximo ano tinha com a extensão e alargamento da atual pista de pouso,será realizada tbm a manutenção dos airbus330-200,os “wide-bodies” intercontinentais da empresa, agora me pergunto para o presidente nos temos pista de pouso para copa em 2014 porque em são paulo temos hoteis para uns dois milhoes de turista

  104. Det er jo litt dumt at de som byr opp ikke respekterer ditt nei da…Hvis du virkelig har lyst til Ã¥ lære Ã¥ danse, er jeg sikker pÃ¥ at det finnes et kurs i nærheten. Er sikker pÃ¥ at du har noe gjemt inni deg nÃ¥r jeg ser pÃ¥ bildet!Ha en fin uke.

  105. I have bought multiple items of luzern on ebay for GREAT prices and found all the items to be as described and in working order. Most noteably a refurbished 37 inch philips LCD TV that cost around 800 euro in most Retailers for 507 pounds sterling. In my opinion I highly recommened this company, from my experience they have excellent bargins and high quality products.

  106. Well to be a loner is not a bad thing. To be possessive like Edward…I don’t know if that’s a bad thing either. Bella obviously doesn’t mind it. I think Pattinson has more good qualities than he gives himself props for. One obvious point, Edward is very well educated. He has books and music everywhere, he plays music as well. Pattinson reads, writes music, sings, plays the guitar and piano. He is not Edward, nor will he ever be. Pattinson is great the way he is, and he does have good qualities.

  107. OMG! FINALLY someone doet iets met magenta maddness!! ik hem denk ik al 4 jaar? ik heb de oude verpakking nog (kleiner dikker potje, awh little chubby one! ) en heb ook de neon gele, en de 3d glitter. AWESOMEEE! Thank you ^^

  108. I additionally believe that mesothelioma is a uncommon form of cancers that is usually found in individuals previously subjected to asbestos. Cancerous tissue form inside the mesothelium, which is a protective lining which covers a lot of the body’s body organs. These cells generally form from the lining of your lungs, mid-section, or the sac which encircles one’s heart. Thanks for sharing your ideas.

  109. It is appropriate time to make some plans for the future and it is time to be happy. I’ve read this post and if I could I desire to suggest you some interesting things or advice. Perhaps you can write next articles referring to this article. I wish to read more things about it!

  110. So i assume what you are trying to do is block all traffic on VLAN 10 unless it is from the subnet /24yes? but what about traffic sent to the subnet /24(config)#>IP access-list 10 permit only captures traffic with a source address of /24 returning traffic is not being picked up. So yes your filter will apear to block all trafficyou want to used extended ACL’s and have permit ip any ip anynow traffic can flow both ways and the filter should work. Let me know

  111. Trzeba zacząć od zlikwidowania umów Å›mieciowych. PorzÄ…dna praca za uczciwe pieniÄ…dze by rodzina mogÅ‚a żyć i siÄ™ rozwijać. Emerytura 67 to Å›ciema , bo za 30 lat okaże siÄ™, że Polaków jest 25 mln. I gówno bÄ™dzie z emerytur , jak nadal nikt nie bÄ™dzie pracowaÅ‚ na “starsze” pokolenia.

  112. edga Nesuprantu žmonÄ—s aš jÅ«sų,jus kÄ… aukos to iphone? Dar ten kažkas linkus kažkokius bando dÄ—t su SE C905 ar SE G900 ir iphone foto palyginimais,jus realiai foto palyginkit,kur to iphone 3,2mp kokybe taip pat kaip Nokia 6500 ar 5800XM ir jÅ«s dar drystat sakyt kad gera ta kamera.. Na nesuprantu tokio požiÅ«rio,kai iš beviltiško dalyko bando daryt kažkÄ…,nusileiskit ant žemÄ—s jÅ«s su tuo iphone…

  113. i did read the comment – perhaps it wasn`t clear to me. still isn`t, frankly. my question to you was ` what in society is not controlled and/or owned by whites?` further, you make a logical fallacy in your reply. i am not saying all white people are in charge but rather that all who are in charge are white. whiteness is not a skin condition but a state of mind which tends to exclude anything not white. for example, the backlash against white boys wearing their pants low

  114. Heck yeah – The Hunt For Red October. Definitely did read the book before the movie – but never touched the book again. However, now I know the Russian national anthem by heart, even though I haven’t a clue what I’m saying. But I doubt it has anything to do with Sean Connery being in the movie… nah. Lois

  115. Wow, Carol, her site is so cool! I love her book collages. This reminds me of what I used to do to the walls of my room when i was in high school – wallpapered with images. To think that I can still do that now that I’m a grown-up is fabulous.

  116. I LOVE Ceasar! He has an amazing understanding of the really bad issues with dogs.I wish he would open a Cesar dog school for those of us who don’t livein L.A.I also love the Monks, totally different energy than Cesar, but really great as well.I watched the English woman for all of 15 min. I couldn’t stand her!

  117. Okei, nå vet jeg betydelig mye mer. Jeg skal være enig med deg i at det tydeligvis burde gjøres en del endringer i denne loven og det er noe Venstre burde se på å støtte.Men jeg kan jo også si at slik loven er formulert så er jo en rettssak poengløs. Loven er jo klar med at de kan avlive hunden. Om dere vil ha det forandret så er stortinget de eneste som kan gjøre det. Rettsapparet skal bare håndheve lovene.

  118. Hey Richard, having been in a situation like what you describe, I find it more important to love. It can be to easy to fall into righteous anger and hate, or to lose faith in humanity. That is why it is so important to love. Love makes up for a multitude of sins, which is to say it heals. Do you remember the Amish reaction to the man who killed those kids? They fought violence with love.

  119. Excelente post meu caro. Era exatamente a dúvida que estava querendo tirar.Quanto ao conteúdo, concordo plenamente, deve-se fazer comentários ou tirar dpuvias pertinentes ao assunto. E também comentar em blog que sejam pertinentes ao assunto do seu blog, como é o meu caso aqui.Muito obrigado pela ajuda.

  120. I was wondering if you ever thought of changing the layout ofyour blog? Its very well written; I love what youve got to say.But maybe you could a little more in the way of content so people could connect with it better.Youve got an awful lot of text for only having oneor 2 images. Maybe you could space it out better?

  121. Ah! You’re coming this way?! Excellent. I’ve got one on the pyramids and I’m going to do a useful one on Luxor, too. Also, I THOROUGHLY recommend Alexandria. Most chilled place I’ve been in Egypt after Dahab, and a lot more real.

  122. Hello there! This is my 1st comment here so I just wanted to give a quick shout out and say I genuinely enjoy reading through your blog posts. Can you recommend any other blogs/websites/forums that cover the same topics? Thanks for your time!

  123. I’d submit that CALVIN AND HOBBES is almost indisputably the best syndicated strip of the last quarter century, and equally nearly indisputably wouldn’t crack the Top 10 best strips of any preceding quarter century. I’d say listing it among the all-time greats, as some have done and will no doubt continue to do, would constitute overrating.

  124. Man, talk about a great post! I’ve stumbled across your buy orlistat store blog a few times in the past, but I usually forgot to buy orlistat store bookmark it. But never again! Thanks for buy orlistat store posting the way you do, I genuinely love seeing someone who buy orlistat store in fact has a viewpoint and isn’t just bringing back up crap like nearly all other bloggers these days. Keep it buy orlistat store up!

  125. Oooh, the still waters one has an unsettling and poetic feel to it… I like it.In Spanish there’s a similar phrase: “Mosquita muerta”, which means “dead fly”, and makes me laugh because all I can visualize is a fly playing dead before picking itself up off the windowsill and buzzing around again.

  126. Anonymous:So we don't have to help the deadbeats in our family, but are legally required to help the deadbeats in our country, even if they are here illegally? I think that's the point. Generosity is easy when you spend someone else's money.

  127. The best account folk I’ve encountered know the client’s business better than their clients – so they’re valued greatly and their opinions listened to – instead of being seen as toadies, they’re treated like partners. That helps sell ads. And builds a good client agency relationship. If you find an account person like that, cling on to them for dear life and consider setting up an agency with them if you’re so inclined.

  128. Sure, fix the schools. Then we can be like Tunisia where most everyone has a college degree and nobody has a job.The problems we have with the economy, which mostly relate to the size and scope of the government, will not be solved by fixing the schools. I'd rather have a prosperous country full of employed people who have a tenuous grasp of algebra than a country full of math whizzes who sell trinkets to foreign tourists.

  129. i wish i were going to be near…you in beige! well i never. don't hate me for saying this but next thing you know you'll be wearing that hat with a pair of awesome bell bottom blue jeans and a chambray shirt. that i'd love to see…!you look amazing as usual dear vix.xoxo

  130. Thanks for the list. Now my TBR stack is just a little taller. And I endorse the Bowerman recommendation: it changed the way I approach business writing, and helped me step off the freelancing ledge. A game-changer.

  131. Are red and Yukon potatoes ok to eat? I didn’t see them listed in your book but these types, and along with russet, are the only ones available here. It excites me to have starch again…. With candida and klebsiella, and starch is basicallya big no. Are u sure it is ok with these strains?

  132. 141Have you ever considered writing an e-book or guest authoring on other sites? I have a blog based upon on the same subjects you discuss and would love to have you share some stories/information. I know my subscribers would enjoy your work. If you’re even remotely interested, feel free to shoot me an email.24

  133. In the autobiographical book “Mao’s Last Dancer”, the author Li Cunxin tells an amusing story of his parent’s marriage in the 1940′s. As was the custom, they met on their wedding day and knew nothing of each other. However, the bride was greatly reassured when her brother reported that he had spied on the groom in the toilet and observed that he had “all his moving parts”!!

  134. 20ePrezada Rosane,Obrigada por acessar nosso site!Você pode seguir os passos recomendados pela vendedora sim.Nos informe seu endereço completo (incluindo CEP) por favor para enviarmos amostra do óleo para você.Ele pode ser usado de 3 maneira(como indicado na postagem feita nessa página, no início)Você pode utilizá-lo junto com a máscara, nos cabelos molhados, ou nos cabelos secos como finalizador.Esperamos que goste!Obrigada!

  135. Tht new ticker won't sustain all the voodoo tht he do much longer. The heart iz God'z house & if u ain't rite wit God ain't no Hollywood satanic ritual or voodoo spell gonna save face 4 thiz devil worshiper.

  136. he was bothered by the “He’s a Muslim” attacks because they were offensive to Muslims. Obama’s campaign hasn’t gone there,though, which is cowardly in my opinion. For now, all they do is refute the rumors and say Obama is a Christian. But I haven’t heard from the campaign a “So? And what if he were a Muslim?”VA:F [1.9.20_1166]

  137. Eh bien, çà alors ! Vous en avez vécu des drôles de choses ce soir ! Fanny sans accent, c’est la Provence sans les cigales, l’aïoli, le pastis, le ciel bleu, les oliviers, la terre sèche et le soleil !Enfin, vous nous racontez et cela devient très exotique/ bizarre, vraiment bizarre. C’est la soirée de toutes les étrangetés…

  138. Jonathan is not the right calibre to curb corruption.corruption influence into bad habit or full of error such as killing.corruption start from the corridor of can,t use error to solve error.

  139. I was sitting here feeling all superior thinking “WE take walks ALL THE TIME” but then I realized that we just walk down the street to the playground and there are no ticks there OR people shooting at us. So I guess you win.

  140. Un plan de lo mas apetecible y si encima viene acompañado de una presentación tan dulce y delicada ,quién se puede resistir??yo no desde luego ,ya tienes invitada para este té de viernes!!Muchos besos y feliz tarde 😉

  141. So glad all went well. Has he had white chocolate popcorn and margueritas for dinner yet? When he does then we REALLY know things are back to normal. Harriet & the Chuckster

  142. Pretty nice post. I just stumbled upon your blog and wanted to say that I’ve really enjoyed surfing around your blog posts. After all I will be subscribing to your feed and I hope you write again very soon!

  143. sas,Replacing residents with absentee owners has a long-term economic impact that needs to be to be weighed here. Although I admit, it is well beyond my ability to quantify. A Londoner with a flat in NYC shops for groceries every week and goes out to eat as well, but the vast majority of those weeks are in London, not NYC. While I agree that foreign money is currently having a stabilizing effect on NYC real estate, what will the long term effect be?

  144. Great product and valiant effort. I hail from Staten Island and a piece of my heart as well as beloved relative and friends still reside there. I applaud your campaign and your vision. Maybe FEMA can take a lesson from you. Thank you.

  145. All the names were great! He came awfully close to being Heathen. It still may come out under certain very specific circumstances. Sausage works all the time, though, and it’s pretty effective if I were to threaten to eat him. Thanks for playing my little game!

  146. it’s a big nasty world out there – and there is no more important duty for a parent to work to equip their child with a moral compass, character and principles upon which to rely on as they navigate.the “central govt will enslave you” narrative is dumb Reed.where do you get this crap from? Every single industrialized country in the world has a central govt and I do not see any slaves.the 3rd world countries are where you find the slaves.

  147. chefnoforno, it is my understanding that size also distinguishes the two, with crostini (little toasts) being smaller that bruschetta. It is also important to note that I did not name this recipe. Your input and knowledge are appreciated. I'm sure the gals who wrote the cookbook would also like to hear from you. Have a great day. Blessings…Mary

  148. You know, I haven’t introduced Wes to protein just yet, but I was thinking we would start off with beans or wild salmon. He loooooves food but doesn’t have any teeth yet so I get a little concerned about him actually being able to chew. Did you find that y’all had any issues with Liv being able to chew chicken/salmon?

  149. Hej! Och tack för dina fina kommentar på min blogg! Jag ser med skräckblandad förtjusning fram emot dom närmsta dagarna. Tänk vad mycket jag ska få lära mig!! Och få umgås med såna proffs! Häftigt!Ses imorgon på Jessicas seminarie!

  150. mais nous tout ce qu’on veut c’est te voir heureuse et avec un homme à ta hauteur… alors crois-moi on sait aussi apprécier les silences. Mais celui-là s’il te bousille dis lui qu’il est mort, la belgique c’est pas grand.

  151. Als je de zaak bekijkt dan rollen Dankbaar, de Vries, Brown en Kat nog steeds over elkaar heen. Brown kan als hij zijn obsessie over Peter R heen is, best zinnige dingen schrijven.Alleen als er iets is waar Peter R is bij betrokken dan gaat hij helemaal los. Eigenlijk is het een wedstrijd geworden welke mannen het verst kunnen pissen.

  152. Mais non, c’est juste qu’en ce moment les gens pensent trop à Noël (ou à comment faire pour pas tomber sur le verglas), alors ils n’ont pas le temps de laisser des com sur les blogs.

  153. Totta, yleistyksiähän ne. Ja eihän Suomessakaan arkun pitäminen auki missään tapauksessa kiellettyä ole, omaiset sen päättävät. Taidamme me nykyihmiset vain säikkyä kuolemaa niin paljon, että aukinaiset arkut olisivat turhan järkyttäviä.

  154. voleva dire che anche l'autorità (nasa) può sbagliare … peccato che se ne ricordano solo in questi frangenti e mai quando approvano la fusione caldacon annesso sperpero di denaro pubblico …